nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …
Because of the addition of one-carbon units, nucleic acid synthesis is strictly dependent on folic acid (vitamin).
Nucleotide Metabolism: Nucleic Acid Synthesis
N2 - The technique described for rendering eukaryotic cells permeable to nucleotides has several advantages in the study of nucleic acid synthesis under near physiological conditions. The technique itself is simple; the cells remain in a monodisperse suspension and are easy to pipet quantitatively. The cells are freely permeable to phosphorylated compounds which gain rapid access to the nucleus. Nucleotides are incorporated into DNA without intermediate breakdown and rephosphorylation. DNA synthesis in permeable cells is semiconservative, the products are high-molecular-weight DNA intermediates, and DNA synthesis occurs as extensions of replication sites that were active in vivo. It is probable that all DNA synthesis in permeable cells is by elongation and that new replicon synthesis is not initiated. This offers the advantage of studying elongation in the absence of initiation. There is essentially no degradation of cell DNA during the permeabilization process. The activity of the replicative DNA polymerase and poly (ADPR) polymerase have been found to undergo marked variations with the status of cell growth. This technique provides an assay system in which the polymerases function on their endogenous templates. It should be useful in determining whether agents that affect nucleic acid synthesis in intact cells exert their effects by direct action on the polymerase or on the template. The system should also be useful for studies of the intermediates in nucleic acid synthesis, and finally for studies of physiological changes in the activities of polymerases that occur with metabolic manipulation of the cells. Since the addition of Triton X-100 renders the cells permeable to exogenous proteins, this technique may also be useful in complementation studies of eukaryotic cells with genetic defects in DNA synthesis.
The basic idea here is that there is exquisite control of the amounts ofpurine nucleotides available for synthesis of nucleic acids, and that thepathways are individually regulated at the cellular level. Furthermore, therelative amounts of ATP and GTP are also controlled at the cellular level.
Protein Synthesis - Nucleic Acids | Nucleic Acids | Dna
The levels of the amino acid serine and glycine are linked to nucleic acid synthesis showing again the close inter-relationship between the metabolism of the four major macromolecular systems in living organisms.
This regeneration of the reduced form of ribonucleotide reductase is controlled by thioredoxin, a monomeric, small protein (108 amino acids), which contains a pair of closely spaced cysteine residues.
types of nucleic acid; DNA and RNA
We expected that the first step, in which PRPP is synthesized, would besubject to regulation because of the prominence of PRPP in other biosyntheticreactions, including that of pyrimidine nucleotides. Increasing levels of ADPand GDP have a negative feedback effect on the enzyme Ribose phosphatepyrophosphokinase. The enzyme catalyzing the second step of the pathway,Amidophosphoribosyl transferase, is inhibited by all of the adenine and guaninenucleotides, the adenine nucleotides binding to one inhibitory site on theenzyme and the guanine nucleotides to another separate site. This enzyme is also"activated" by the increase in the level of PRPP and this is called a"feedforward activation".
IMP is also subject to regulation at points after its production. AMP and GMPeach competitively inhibit their own production. Also, each AMP synthesizedrequires one GTP and each GMP synthesized requires one ATP, in a reciprocalfashion as mentioned above. As about equal amounts of AMP and GMP are needed innucleic acid synthesis, this reciprocity provides for that. The rate ofproduction of AMP increases with increasing concentrations of GTP, and that ofGMP with increasing concentrations of ATP.
Nucleic acid synthesis and metabolism. - Attotron
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis - SlideShare
Chapter 21: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis …
nucleic acid synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet
Nucleic acids are a polynucleotides consisting of repeated units of mononucleotides
Chemical nucleic acid synthesis, modification and labelling Brian S
Start studying nucleic acid synthesis. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors (Concept Id: C0376568)
The key molecule in the synthesis of the pyrimidine ribonucleotides isuridine monophosphate (UMP), as it is the final product of the six-stepsynthesis pathway and from which CTP is subsequently derived. Thepyrimidine ring, in the form of dihydroorotate, is formed first (note that thisis not the case for the pyrimidine bases) following attachment toribose-5-phosphate.
Locked Nucleic Acid Synthesis | SpringerLink
What this shows is that the overall effect of combining these two reactionsis a net result of deaminating an aspartate to a fumarate at the expense of aGTP molecule. This cycle of reactions is know as the and it is ofphysiologic importance in muscle metabolism. Muscle tissue replenishes itscitric acid cycle intermediates via the purine nucleotide cycle rather thanthrough the usual "replenishing reactions", the most important ofwhich is the generation of oxaloacetate from pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvatecarboxylase. The fumarate generated in the purine nucleotide cycle feeds intothe citric acid cycle to regenerate malate, oxaloacetate, and so forth.
Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Synthesis – Link Help Centre
Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a nucleic acid analogue containing one or more LNA nucleotide monomers with a bicyclic furanose unit locked in an RNA mimicking sugar conformation. LNA oligonucleotides display unprecedented hybridization affinity toward complementary single-stranded RNA and complementary single- or double-stranded DNA. Structural studies have shown that LNA oligonucleotides induce A-type (RNA-like) duplex conformations. The wide applicability of LNA oligonucleotides for gene silencing and their use for research and diagnostic purposes are documented in a number of recent reports, some of which are described herein.
TTP phosphate available for nucleic acid synthesis, ..
Both cellular and ingested nucleic acids are degraded, their products beingturned over, or salvaged, or excreted from the body. An organism is able toproduce most of the nucleotides that it needs in the pathwaysthat we are now studying, so most of the nucleotides, bases, etc. that arecatabolic products of ingested nucleic acids are excreted after furtherdegradation.
What are examples of nucleic acids in biology? - Quora
Note that a guanine nucleotide (GTP) is involved in the AMP pathway and thatan adenine nucleotide (ATP) is involved in the GMP pathway. This reciprocity isfundamental to the control of production of both AMP and GMP and their di- andtriphosphates.
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