If , reject H0: x = y at the 0.05 level of significance.
Let's return finally to the question of whether we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.
The significance level is used in hypothesis testing as follows.
So far, this essay has dealt lightly with regional differences and largely confined the discussion to polar, temperate, and tropical conditions in the seas, and rainforest versus dryer conditions on land. While existed, barriers to species diffusion on land were relatively modest, hence dominance. But at the Triassic’s end, and continental differences in plants and animals often became significant in later times. Although the formation of Pangaea had profound impacts, because land life was relatively young, the differences and resultant changes due to the removal of oceanic barriers were less spectacular than would happen in the distant future, such as when .
Other than Dennis and a few others, the FE field has generally been dominated by inventors and scientists who are stuck at those early stages (usually levels , , and – few of them harbor delusions, and they would usually love to be the focus of a , if it made them rich and famous). It was like the super heat pump “industry” when . The traditional solar industry also attacked Dennis when he sold the world’s best heating system. Everybody saw Dennis as a threat, not only the energy oligarchy led by the GCs, but also “competitors” in the alternative energy field and those scientists and inventors who . In 2015, I cannot currently recommend efforts in the FE field. There are some worthy players in the milieu, some of whom know that they are risking their lives and have suffered organized suppression activities (including murder attempts), but their approach has never come close to working. I will now survey some pitfalls that FE aspirants regularly fall into and why stumbling into them can be life-wrecking or fatal.
The null hypothesis is an hypothesis about a population parameter.
The (c. 15 kya to 11.8 kya) succeeded the Kebaran culture. The Natufian village at in today’s Syria was established about 13.5 kya and was situated on a gazelle migration route. The residents of that village of a few hundred people also . Those villagers became Earth’s first known farmers, and they had dogs. The during the Younger Dryas and resettled after it ended. The effect of a harsher climate may have , which began there about 11 kya. By seven kya, the settlement had grown to several thousand people, and was then abandoned due to aridity. No evidence of warfare is associated with the settlement. A compelling recent hypothesis is that agriculture could not have developed in warfare’s presence, as farmers would have been too vulnerable to raids by hungry hunters. In the four places on Earth where civilization seems to have independently developed: the Fertile Crescent, China, Mesoamerica, and the Andes, no evidence of violent conflict exists before those civilizations, fed by the first crops, began growing into states. Those states are called “pristine” states, as no other states influenced their development. Also, it is considered likely that a primary impetus for beginning agriculture in those regions was the decimation of animals to hunt. Not only was the easy meat rendered largely extinct, but those animals would have also been competitors for crops. The peaceful agricultural villages that , in which women's status was closer to men's than at any time before the Industrial Revolution, actually existed, if only for a relatively brief time, in only a few places.
Europe was a crucible for violence probably ever since the human conquest of Neanderthals, and evidence for warfare and mass violence increases as the timeline progressed from then. But going back to those , violence is not instinctual as much as calculated, and is a response to economic scarcity above all else. However, those early religious rituals were not only a method to form group cohesion; they were also a way to condition men to throw their lives away while trying to take the lives of others. The rituals and rites of passage for men were often extremely painful ordeals that conditioned them for the short life of a warrior, and forming highly contrasting in-group/out-group beliefs that facilitated killing other people. The portion of the human brain where emotions appear to be seated, in the , is no larger than in our great ape cousins. It is well-known that fear shuts down the neocortex, as animals prepare for fight-or-flight responses, and it is no different with humans. However, the response is much more dramatic with humans, with their huge neocortexes and frontal lobes. So the human response to fear is losing much of what makes humans seemingly sentient. Those religious rituals seem designed to bypass the neocortex and form a bridge to the limbic system where emotions rule. Religion seems to have arisen as a to warfare, but that will be explored in the next chapter, which covers the civilizing of humanity, which is the .
The level of significance is (check all that apply):
Mass extinctions always have critical geophysical aspects to them, and often geochemical. Continental shelves under shallow seas, which are home to most marine life, are vulnerable to sea level and oceanic current changes. Stagnant waters, or waters that have too many nutrients dumped into them, can lose their oxygen, which triggers anoxic events that kill complex life. A continental shelf exposed to the atmosphere by a falling sea level would obviously lose its marine life, and that marine life might have had nowhere else to go. Sea levels can rise or fall for different reasons. The most obvious reason has been advancing and retreating ice sheets, as water is removed from or added to the oceans, but the aggregate continental landmass has always grown (possibly sporadically), continents can rise and can fall during the journeys of their tectonic plates, and the ocean’s collective basin has fluctuated in size, as water was hydrated into rocks, and also falling when and rising again as they fragmented. Generally, when , the continental shelves lost their marine life, and , anoxic conditions often accompanied them. There is evidence that the ozone layer has been periodically damaged, which stressed all plants and animals that the Sun directly shined on. The positions of the continents, both in relation to each other and their proximity to the equator or poles, can have dramatic effects, including impacts on global climate. Global climate changes and moving continents can turn rainforests into deserts and vice versa.
There is also evidence that life itself can contribute to mass extinctions. When the eventually , organisms that could not survive or thrive around oxygen (called ) . When anoxic conditions appeared, particularly when existed, the anaerobes could abound once again, and when thrived, usually arising from ocean sediments, they . Since the ocean floor had already become anoxic, the seafloor was already a dead zone, so little harm was done there. The hydrogen sulfide became lethal when it rose in the and killed off surface life and then wafted into the air and near shore. But the greatest harm to life may have been inflicted when hydrogen sulfide eventually , which could have been the final blow to an already stressed ecosphere. That may seem a fanciful scenario, but there is evidence for it. There is fossil evidence of during the Permian extinction, as well as photosynthesizing anaerobic bacteria ( and ), which could have only thrived in sulfide-rich anoxic surface waters. Peter Ward made this key evidence for his , and he has implicated hydrogen sulfide events in most major mass extinctions. An important aspect of Ward’s Medea hypothesis work is that about 1,000 PPM of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which might be reached in this century if we keep burning fossil fuels, may artificially induce Canfield Oceans and result in . Those are not wild-eyed doomsday speculations, but logical outcomes of current trends and , proposed by leading scientists. Hundreds of already exist on Earth, which are primarily manmade. Even if those events are “only” 10% likely to happen in the next century, that we are flirting with them at all should make us shudder, for a few reasons, one of which is the awesome damage that it would inflict on the biosphere, including humanity, and another is that it is entirely preventable with the use of technologies .
the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true b.
the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false c.
they allow researchers to determine whether their data supports or rejects the null hypothesis, and consequently.
Level of confidence is another name for level of significance.
Identify the critical value suitable for conducting a two-tail test of the hypothesis at the 2% level.
the null hypothesis is probably wrong b.
the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true.
the result would be unexpected if the null hypothesis were true c.
In 2003, when I began studying , the , and they articulated the difficulties that I had with mainstream economics since . A textbook published in 2011 by an economist and ecologist analyzed the disconnection between economists and the real world, and the way that economic schools have ignored energy was, in the opinion of the authors, their most grievous error. I do not take overarching conspiracy theories very seriously, as they do not adequately explain how most people act. People blindly and uncaringly performing their jobs are how most of the FE suppression that I survived was inflicted. Structural features, , explain most activity. However, that did not mean that those at the top did not know what they were doing, or even those further down the command chain, and my life’s turning point was when a public official . Organized suppression is , in my experience. Those doing most of the dirty work really do not know whose interests they serve or , and most do not even care much as long as it pays well, which was .
the null hypothesis is probably true d.
Many assumptions of neoclassical economics have been convincingly falsified by the physical, biological, and social sciences. Some of those assumptions are that people are independently minded rational actors who do not look to what others do (i.e., humans are not herd animals), that the economy can be divorced from the ecosystem that supports it, that money can substitute for , and that economic production can be described without referencing physical work. Neoclassical economics ignores the fact that entropy saps the efficiency of any system, economic or otherwise. Unlike a genuine science, almost no branches of today’s economics, particularly neoclassical economics, base their theories on hypotheses that can be tested and . Today’s mainstream economics resembles a faith more than a science.
The descriptive significance level of the test is: a.
One major problem with making a positive impact on a global level, ultra-elite machinations aside, is that almost nobody focuses on what is important, which I hope to help remedy with this essay. Almost everybody hacks at branches if they hack at all. Conspiracists tend to obsess on elite machinations, which is an exercise of dubious benefit to begin with, but they often become paranoid and also confuse retail elites or other interests with the GCs. Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are probably not members of the GCs’ organization. Also, I learned that ultra-elites can only play their games with the responsibility that almost all people have abdicated as they play the victim. The GCs are only a symptom of our malaise, not a cause. They cannot be beaten at their game, and it is counterproductive and can even be suicidal to try. Making them obsolete is probably the best that we can do. While conspiracists often fixate on ultra-elite machinations, intellectuals, academics, and scientists tend to deny that such activities even exist or are meaningful. It took me many years to understand their resistance to even acknowledging ultra-elite existence, and I think it partly relates to the mainstream scientific worldview that . They have an ideological aversion to the notion that anybody manipulates events on a global scale, and believe that what seems conspiratorial is only anarchic elites competing with each other, which is like Darwin’s view of evolution. They believe that conspiracists see a pattern where none exists, or that the situation can be explained without invoking conscious intent, like materialistic hypotheses of how the universe operates. Radical leftists have to the of such elites; such an idea scares them. Neither obsession nor denial helps people attain productive understandings of the issue. Conspiracists and structuralists are united in thinking like victims, and that, as I see it, . Until they relinquish thinking like a victim, they will not constructively engage the critical issues that humanity faces, and energy ranks above all else. Victims are reactive instead of proactive, and only and resulting action has a prayer of working, in my opinion.
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