Scientific Method - Definition and Examples - ThoughtCo
Scientific Approach: Identifying and Defining Research Questions; Purposes, and Hypotheses
Science & the Scientific Method: A Definition
One such perspective has been offered recently by Hoyningen-Huene(2008, 2013), who argues from the history of philosophy of sciencethat after three lengthy phases of characterizing science by itsmethod, we are now in a phase where the belief in the existence of apositive scientific method has eroded and what has been left tocharacterize science is only its fallibility. First was a phase fromPlato and Aristotle up until the 17th century where thespecificity of scientific knowledge was seen in its absolute certaintyestablished by proof from evident axioms; next was a phase up to themid-19th century in which the means to establish thecertainty of scientific knowledge had been generalized to includeinductive procedures as well. In the third phase, which lasted untilthe last decades of the 20th century, it was recognizedthat empirical knowledge was fallible, but it was still granted aspecial status due to its distinctive mode of production. But now inthe fourth phase, according to Hoyningen-Huene, historical andphilosophical studies have shown how “scientific methods withthe characteristics as posited in the second and third phase do notexist” (2008: 168) and there is no longer any consensus amongphilosophers and historians of science about the nature ofscience. For Hoyningen-Huene, this is too negative a stance, and hetherefore urges the question about the nature of science anew. His ownanswer to this question is that “scientific knowledge differsfrom other kinds of knowledge, especially everyday knowledge,primarily by being more systematic” (Hoyningen-Huene 2013:14). Systematicity can have several different dimensions: among them are moresystematic descriptions, explanations, predictions, defense ofknowledge claims, epistemic connectedness, ideal of completeness,knowledge generation, representation of knowledge and criticaldiscourse. Hence, what characterizes science is the greater care inexcluding possible alternative explanations, the more detailedelaboration with respect to data on which predictions are based, thegreater care in detecting and eliminating sources of error, the morearticulate connections to other pieces of knowledge, etc. On thisposition, what characterizes science is not that the methods employedare unique to science, but that the methods are more carefullyemployed.
Reference to the scientific method has also often been used toargue for the scientific nature or special status of a particularactivity. Philosophical positions that argue for a simple and uniquescientific method as a criterion of demarcation, such as Popperianfalsification, have often attracted practitioners who felt that theyhad a need to defend their domain of practice. For example, referencesto conjectures and refutation as the scientific method are abundant inmuch of the literature on complementary and alternative medicine(CAM)—alongside the competing position that CAM, as analternative to conventional biomedicine, needs to develop its ownmethodology different from that of science.
the scientific terms: hypothesis ..
In recent decades, philosophical discussions of the evaluation ofprobabilistic hypotheses by statistical inference have largely focusedon Bayesianism that understands probability as a measure of aperson’s degree of belief in an event, given the availableinformation, and frequentism that instead understands probability as along-run frequency of a repeatable event. Hence, for Bayesiansprobabilities refer to a state of knowledge, whereas for frequentistsprobabilities refer to frequencies of events (see, e.g., Sober 2008,chapter 1 for a detailed introduction to Bayesianism and frequentismas well as to likelihoodism). Bayesianism aims at providing aquantifiable, algorithmic representation of belief revision, wherebelief revision is a function of prior beliefs (i.e., backgroundknowledge) and incoming evidence. Bayesianism employs a rule based onBayes’ theorem, a theorem of the probability calculus whichrelates conditional probabilities. The probability that a particularhypothesis is true is interpreted as a degree of belief, or credence,of the scientist. There will also be a probability and a degree ofbelief that a hypothesis will be true conditional on a piece ofevidence (an observation, say) being true. Bayesianism proscribes thatit is rational for the scientist to update their belief in thehypothesis to that conditional probability should it turn out that theevidence is, in fact, observed. Originating in the work of Neyman andPerson, frequentism aims at providing the tools for reducing long-runerror rates, such as the error-statistical approach developed by Mayo(1996) that focuses on how experimenters can avoid both type I andtype II errors by building up a repertoire of procedures that detecterrors if and only if they are present. Both Bayesianism andfrequentism have developed over time, they are interpreted indifferent ways by its various proponents, and their relations toprevious criticism to attempts at defining scientific method are seendifferently by proponents and critics. The literature, surveys,reviews and criticism in this area are vast and the reader is referredto the entries on and.
Similar discussions are found in the philosophical literature. Onthe one side, Churchman (1948) and Rudner (1953) argued that becausescientific hypotheses can never be completely verified, a completeanalysis of the methods of scientific inference includes ethicaljudgments in which the scientists must decide whether the evidence issufficiently strong or that the probability is sufficiently high towarrant the acceptance of the hypothesis, which again will depend onthe importance of making a mistake in accepting or rejecting thehypothesis. Others, such as Jeffrey (1956) and Levi (1960) disagreedand instead defended a value-neutral view of science on whichscientists should bracket their attitudes, preferences, temperament,and values when assessing the correctness of their inferences. Formore details on this value-free ideal in the philosophy of science andits historical development, see Douglas (2009) and Howard (2003).
An important topic in fluid dynamics is multiphase flows
Advances in logic and probability held out promise of thepossibility of elaborate reconstructions of scientific theories andempirical methods. The best example of this is RudolfCarnap’s The Logical Structure of the World (1928)Here, Carnap attempted to show that a scientific theory could beunderstood as a formal axiomatic system—that is, alogic. Insofar as that system referred to the world, it did sobecause some of its basic sentences could be understood in terms ofobservations or operations which one could perform to test them. Therest of the theoretical system, including sentences using theoreticalor unobservable terms (like electron or force) would then either bemeaningful because they could be reduced to observations, or they hadpurely logical meanings (called analytic, like mathematicalidentities). This has been referred to as the verifiability criterionof meaning. According to the criterion, any statement not eitheranalytic or verifiable was strictly meaningless. Although the viewwas endorsed by Carnap in 1928, he would later come to see it as toorestrictive (Carnap 1956). Another familiar version of this ideais operationalism of Percy William Bridgman. In The Logic ofModern Physics (1927) Bridgman asserted that every physicalconcept could be defined in terms of the operations one would performto verify the application of that concept. Making good on theoperationalisation of a concept even as simple as length, however,can easily become enormously complex (for measuring very smalllengths, for instance) or impractical (measuring large distances likelight years.)
Although skepticism, or doubt, has long been recognised as an important element in all science, Kuhn argued that scientific opinion does not change easily in fundamental things. In particular, one theory or world view is replaced by another not because many scientists are 'converted' to the new world view. Instead, a new theory begins as an unfashionable alternative that is often derided, but gains adherents as its advantages become apparent to new scientists entering the field, while the adherents of the old view fight a 'rear-guard action' to defend it. 's work on regulatory elements that control gene expression won her the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983, but in 1953 she decided to stop trying to publish detailed accounts of her work, because of the puzzlement and hostility of her peers. In 1973 she wrote:
Multiphase flows can be found in numerous fields in engineering, e.g
Psychology- Chapter 1 Scientific Method Flashcards | Quizlet
Experiment - Wikipedia
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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis
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A scientific theory is an overarching world view in an area of science. A theory may include statements of general scientific laws, such as the , it has a logical structure and includes axioms and defined concepts, and broadly it seeks to provide a coherent explanation of a large body of observations, and to bind these together with a set of related hypotheses. Theories are a necessary part of science because they determine a common language by which scientists in a field can communicate — communication of ideas depends upon scientists sharing key assumptions and using a common terminology. A particular theory is adopted by a scientific community for complex reasons; theories are preferred when they are successful in explaining a wide body of observations, but also when they are elegant, aesthetically satisfying in a way that is hard to define. This is sometimes expressed as a preference for simple, clear explanations. In the 14th century, the English logician and Franciscan friar formulated the 'law of parsimony', commonly known as '' — "entities should not be multiplied more than is needed" (in Latin, ).
What are 3 characteristics of a hypothesis
Kuhn concluded that falsifiability had played almost no role in scientific revolutions. He argued that scientists working in a field resist the alternative interpretations of 'outsiders', and tenaciously defend their world view by continually elaborating their shared theory; "normal science often suppresses fundamental novelties because they are necessarily subversive of its basic commitments".
A hypothesis is a proposed scientific …
For Karl Popper, theory was profoundly important in science; a theory encompasses the preconceptions by which the world is viewed, and defines what we choose to study, and how we study it and understand it. He recognised that theories are not discarded lightly, and a theory might be retained long after it has been shown to be inconsistent with known facts (). However, the recognition of anomalies drives scientists to adjust the theory, and if the anomalies continue to accumulate, will drive them to develop alternative theories. Popper proposed that a theory should be judged by the extent to which it inspires testable hypotheses. While theories always contain many elements that are not falsifiable, Popper argued that these should be as few as possible. However, scientists also seek theories that are "elegant"; a theory should yield clear, simple explanations of complex phenomena, that are intellectually satisfying in being logically coherent, rich in content, and involving no miracles or other supernatural devices.
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