An example of a formalized research hypothesis ..
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The therapist basically wants to communicate that if changes induced in the body by drugs are maintained over a long time by repeated drug use, the potential for detrimental consequences continues to increase. Not all of the consequences of continuing substance use are necessarily problematic. However, the rapid actions and euphoric effects of drugs with high addiction potential provide strong gratification that can overshadow the user’s interests in non-drug activities and awareness of delayed costs of substance use. Outcomes like tolerance and withdrawal can stimulate the user to engage in more frequent administration of greater quantities of drugs. In turn, this behavior can enhance the likelihood that the user will come to depend on drugs to feel normal, since drug intoxication is becoming the individual’s typical state of being. Therapists can help substance using clients to identify the characteristics of withdrawal, tolerance and dependence.
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If you only want to see whether the time turns out to be greater than what the company claims (that is, whether the company is falsely advertising its quick prep time), you use the greater-than alternative, and your two hypotheses are
Comorbid disorders not easily distinguished may be underdiagnosed and therefore untreated. ADHD is one disorder that is commonly overlooked, misdiagnosed, or ignored (Cavanagh, 1989; Hallowell & Ratey, 1995; Milin, 1995). Carroll and Rounsaville's (1993) study illustrates this point: In a 1 year follow-up interview, not one of the cocaine addicts diagnosed with ADHD the year previously had received any form of pharmacologic treatment during that year, even though about half of them had reported periods of abstinence from cocaine during that time.
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For example, if you want to test whether a company is correct in claiming its pie takes five minutes to make and it doesn’t matter whether the actual average time is more or less than that, you use the not-equal-to alternative. Your hypotheses for that test would be
Which alternative hypothesis you choose in setting up your hypothesis test depends on what you’re interested in concluding, should you have enough evidence to refute the null hypothesis (the claim). The alternative hypothesis should be decided upon before collecting or looking at any data, so as not to influence the results.
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Before actually conducting a hypothesis test, you have to put two possible hypotheses on the table — the null hypothesis is one of them. But, if the null hypothesis is rejected (that is, there was sufficient evidence against it), what’s your alternative going to be? Actually, three possibilities exist for the second (or alternative) hypothesis, denoted Ha. Here they are, along with their shorthand notations in the context of the pie example:
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Otherwise reluctant clients are sometimes willing to review DSM-5 criteria or listen to “third party” descriptions of characteristics of substance-related and addictive disorders if they are assured it is their choice whether to talk about personal experience. Clients may offer comments about their own circumstances in response to learning generalized material, or they may absorb information the therapist shares without verbalizing a response.
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Every hypothesis test contains a set of two opposing statements, or hypotheses, about a population parameter. The first hypothesis is called the denoted H0. The null hypothesis always states that the population parameter is to the claimed value. For example, if the claim is that the average time to make a name-brand ready-mix pie is five minutes, the statistical shorthand notation for the null hypothesis in this case would be as follows:
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Researchers often challenge claims about population parameters. You may hypothesize, for example, that the actual proportion of women who have varicose veins is lower than 0.25, based on your observations. Or you may hypothesize that due to the popularity of high heeled shoes, the proportion may be higher than 0.25. Or if you’re simply questioning whether the actual proportion is 0.25, your alternative hypothesis is: “No, it isn’t 0.25.”
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Ideally, learning more about the actions and effects of different types of drugs, plus having a caring therapist to help process this information will stimulate the client to think about what it would be like to relinquish problems associated with the client’s own substance use. Whether the client is considering this prospect only in hypothetical terms or is ready to take action, the therapist can offer additional psychoeducation about the process of recovering from any negative impact of substance use and related disorders.
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