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Theory of Mind | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Theory of Mind

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Some Limitations of the Theory of Mind Hypothesis

Theseexperiments don't just reveal a third intact mental ability in Williams
syndrome children. They also suggest that those intact abilities - language,
understanding faces and knowing what's on someone's mind - are all the mental
skills required by a social life. they may even represent a set of
interconnected brain centres that have been spared in the devastation of this

 Wellman, H.M. (1990). _The child's theory of mind_. Cambridge: MIT  Press.
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Bythe time I found out about the simple theory of mind tests, my son had noproblems passing the tests. (money, pencils, or candy in box) What a relief!

Theory of Mind by Happe | Theory Of Mind | Autism

He received his AB, MA, and PhD in psychology from the University of Wisconsin (1970).
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An additional theory that explains the deficits in ASD is the executive functioning disorder hypothesis, or what some refer to as the complex information processing theory. Pennington and Ozonoff (1996) proposed the executive dysfunction theory of autism when they observed that individuals with ASD struggled in complex tasks involving abstract concepts such as reasoning and planning. This theory has been expanded using neuropsychological tests. Researchers have generally observed that individuals with ASD struggle more than their peers when their brain needs to process more information at once. Minshew and Goldstein (1998) found that as the complexity of tasks were increased, individuals with autism were more impaired than those without autism. Children and adults with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have impaired executive functioning, as well.

An additional psychological theory of ASD is that individuals on the spectrum have Weak Central Cohesion (WCC). The WCC theory suggests that individuals on the spectrum struggle to incorporate information at different levels, and as a result, fail to integrate detail into global entities (Frith, 1989). Some describe this by saying they are not able “to see the forest through the trees.” This theory has been used to describe both assets and deficits in individuals with ASD. For example, this would explain why individuals with autism quite frequently develop very strong skills in math or science, but have difficulty grasping the gist of a story. It is possible that WCC may be related to ToM because in order to understand the thoughts and feelings of another person in a real life situation, an individual needs to be able to take into account the social context and integrate diverse information from a variety of sources (Happé, 1995). However, studies examining WCC in populations of children and adults with ASD have provided inconsistent results. While researchers have shown that participants with ASD perform better on visual processing tasks requiring detailed information processing than people without ASD (Siegel, Minshew, & Goldstein, 1996), other studies have reported no differences between participants with ASD and control groups on these tasks (Ozonoff, Pennington, & Rogers, 1991).

Theory of mind - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind by Simon Baron-Cohen
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Disclaimer: this does not mean I personally disagree with the theory of =
mind deficit hypothesis in children with autism, just that I'm not so sure =
that we have all the information yet.

I found a copy of the JADD article (Vol. 25,No. 4, 1995) which Bud Newsome
mentioned the other day, called "Teaching Theory of Mind: A New Approachto
Social Skills Training for Individuals with Autism" by Sally Ozonoff and
Judith Miller (University of Utah). I prepared a summary of this article
for the students in my language disorders class and I thought I'd send it
off to anyone on the List who might be interested: (For those MeListerswho
might not have tracked the previous discussions about this topic, Theory of
Mind, or TOM, refers to a person's ability to infer the mental states of

Most major US and many other large foreigncomputer firms have established companies or joint ventures in India to develop softwarefor export.
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  • Linking Theories to Practice: Exploring Theory of Mind, ..

    "Mindblindness,An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind" by Simon Baron-Cohen is due for publication this spring.

  • Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural …

    Although the word is commonly used withreference to ethical and cultural principles, values are of many types.

  • Theory of mind deficit in people ..

    Theory of Mind Deficit (ToM)

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A Theory of Mind investigation into the appreciation of ..

Baron-Cohendevelops a theory that draws on data from comparative
psychology, from developmental, and from neuropsychology. He
argues that specific neurocognitive mechanisms have evolved that
allow us to mindread, to make sense of actions, to interpret gazes
as meaningful, and to decode "the language of the eyes."

Mixing Memory: Autism and Theory of Mind

Buildingon many years of research, Baron-Cohen concludes that
children with autism, suffer from "mindblindness" as a result of a
selective impairment in mindreading. For these children, the world
is essentially devoid of mental things.

Refrigerator mother theory - Wikipedia

SimonBaron-Cohen is Lecturer in Psychopathology in the departments
of experimental psychology and psychiatry at the University of

Human Knowledge: Foundations and Limits

In"Mindblindness", Simon Baron-Cohen presents a model of the
evolution and development of "mindreading." He argues that we
mindread all the time, effortlessly, automatically, and mostly
unconsciously. It is the natural way in which we interpret,
predict, and participate in social behavior and communication. We
ascribe mental states to people: states such as thoughts, desires,
knowledge, and intentions.

Social Development Theory - ICPD

Thereview of the book "Mindblindness" by Simon Baron-Cohen appeared
in a booklet by The MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142.
It reviews their Spring 1995 publications.

by Garry Jacobs and Harlan Cleveland November 1, 1999

AN Journal Article: 79-16458.
AU Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J; Pennington, Bruce F.
IN U Utah, Salt Lake City, US.
TI Asperger's syndrome: Evidence of an empirical distinction from
high-functioning autism.
SO Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines. Vol32(7)
1107-1122, Nov 1991.
AB Compared the neuropsychological profiles of 13 Ss with high-functioning
autism (HFA) and 10 Ss with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Incomparison with 20
matched nonautistic controls, both groups were impaired onexecutive
function tests. Only the HFA group demonstrated deficits in theoryof mind
and verbal memory, performing worse than both controls and ASpatients. HFA
and AS Ss appear to be distinguishable on measures independent of
diagnostic criteria, and impairment on theory of mind measures maynot
universally be found among Ss with autistic spectrum conditions.(PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rightsreserved).

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