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Interspecific difference in the photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship

Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants.

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nitrogen relationship in wild plants

Wild radish plants deprived of, and continuously supplied with solution NO 3 for 7 d following 3 weeks growth at high NO 3 supply were compared in terms of changes in dry weight, leaf area, photosynthesis and the partitioning of carbon and nitrogen (NH2‐N and NO 3‐N) among individual organs.

Photosynthesis-nitrogen relationships in pioneer plants of disturbed tropical montane forest sites.

Modern researchers have used Oldowan tools to quickly butcher elephants. Sawing a limb from a predator kill and stealing it would have been quick and easy. Stone tools also crushed bones to extract marrow, and would have made harvesting and processing plant foods far easier.Below are relics of the five stone tool cultures that scientists have discovered. (Source for all images: Wikimedia Commons)Scientists today think that above all else, the first stone tools began humanity’s Age of Meat. Meat is a nutrient-dense food and is highly prized among wild chimpanzees that use it as a , and male chimps have used it as payment for sex. The human brain is more than three times the size of a chimpanzee’s, but recent research suggests that the human brain’s size is , and great ape brains seem relatively small because their bodies became relatively large, possibly due to sexual selection that resulted from vying for mates. Humans developed relatively larger brains and relatively smaller and weaker bodies, which was ; something had to give. Protohumans began relying on brains more than brawn. The studies of brain size, encephalization, neocortex function, intelligence, and their relationships are in their infancy. The current . Larger brains were needed for navigating increasing social complexity, and not only the number of individuals in a society, but the sophistication of interactions. It is also argued that smarter brains allowed for greater social complexity, in another possible instance of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. Societies can perform tasks that individuals cannot. Those engage in wars and revolutions. They can procure a food source and secure the territory, which creates the energetic means for developing a society.

photosynthesis--nitrogen relationship in wild plants

Light-saturated photosynthetic rate in high-nitrogen rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves is related to chloroplastic CO2 concentration.

Wild radish plants deprived of, and continuously supplied with solution NO− 3 for 7 d following 3 weeks growth at high NO− 3 supply were compared in terms of changes in dry weight, leaf area, photosynthesis and the partitioning of carbon and nitrogen (NH2‐N and NO− 3‐N) among individual organs.

Carbon isotope discrimination during photosynthesis and dark respiration in intact leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris: comparisons between wild type and mitochondrial mutant plants.

The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship in wild plants

Photosynthesis-nitrogen relationships in species at different altitudes on Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia

Few studies have been performed on the relationships between energy, brains, and sleep, but a recent one found that sleep seems to be .Larger brains had to confer immediate advantages or else they would not have evolved, especially as energy-demanding as they are. Evolutionary pressures ensure that there is no cost without an immediate benefit. As humans have demonstrated, intelligence combined with manipulative ability led to a domination of Earth that no other organism ever achieved. Humans weigh about 50% more than chimpanzees, but have brains three times the size. A human brain comprises about 2% of the body’s mass, but uses nearly 20% of its energy at rest. Growing an energy-demanding organ was funded with the coin of energy. How did protohumans manage it?There are a number of possible solutions to obtaining the energy to fuel the growing protohuman brain, and they all fall under these categories: Studies have shown that humans and chimpanzees have the same basal metabolism, so the first possibility is considered very unlikely in our ancestors, although large brains in general . The subject of reducing energy output has an intriguing hypothesis: bipedal motion allowed humans to move by using less energy than our pre-bipedal ancestors. Human bipedal locomotion requires only a quarter of the energy that chimpanzee locomotion does, and chimps use about a quarter of their metabolism walking, although whether this was a key evolutionary event is controversial. Even though protohumans would have taken advantage of bipedal walking to range farther than chimps (humans can average 11 miles a day, while chimps can only achieve six), thereby using a relatively larger proportion of their energy on locomotion; bipedal locomotion energy savings alone might largely account for the growing brain’s energy needs. was developed to account for the required energy, which proposed that energy to fuel the growing brain came from reducing digestion costs, which was initially provided by eating more meat. and can digest cellulose while humans cannot. The human digestive tract is only about 60% of the size expected for a primate of our size. Human guts are far smaller than chimp and especially gorilla guts, which process all of that low-calorie foliage. Chimp and gorilla rib cages flare outward from top-to-bottom, like a dress, as did australopithecine rib cages, to accommodate large guts, as . When chimpanzees eat meat, they put large, tough leaves in their mouths. That helps them overachieve as meat eaters, as their teeth and jaws are poorly adapted for chewing meat. Mountain gorillas eat no meat at all. In the wild, great apes spend about half of their day chewing. Chimpanzees are the most carnivorous great ape, and although meat is the greatest treasure in chimpanzee societies, they often stop eating meat after chewing it for an hour or two and revert to fruit and other softer foods if they can get it. Chimpanzees when their staple, fruit, is scarce. Chimps have been seen killing monkeys, eating their organs, and then abandoning the carcasses to find more monkeys to kill. Organ meats and intestines are far easier to chew, and a poor meat chewer like a chimpanzee prefers soft meats. Just as chimpanzees prefer soft meats, predators will eat soft organs first and leave the tougher muscle for later, if they eat it at all. It depends on how plentiful the available flesh is, but the pattern across all predator groups is clear: eat the best, first, and leave the lesser quality foods to the end or let scavengers have them. It will always be a cost/benefit decision. All things being equal, the less time and energy needed to eat something, the sooner it will be eaten. If extra time and effort is needed to procure food, then the nutritional reward (primarily in energy) has to be exceptional to justify it. Evolutionary pressures have made animals into excellent accountants. The human sweet tooth is a relic of humanity’s fruit-eating ape heritage, and the desire for fatty foods reflects an adaptation to prefer that energy-richest of foods. Fat (made of hydrocarbons) is the ultimate energy windfall of all foods.

What plants utilize nitrates/nitrogen for is leaf growth, which in turn maximizes surface area for essential photosynthesis.
Although I have not performed controlled tests, my observations are that nitrate levels that are too low will stunt plant growth and possibly even encourage certain algae (such as green spot), while higher nitrate levels will encourage algae to outperform plants and take over an aquarium.

nitrogen relationship in wild plants ..
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