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How the efficiency of photosynthesis depends on wavelength (green).

The Affect of Wavelengths of Light on Rate of Photosynthesis

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#41 Effect of Light intensity on the rate of Photosynthesis

Determination of efficient (photosynthetically speaking) light sources is important for several reasons. Economy in the costs of maintaining a coral reef aquarium certainly is a concern, but the health of zooxanthellae and hence their animal host should be of primary importance. Aesthetic concerns, such as the promotion of coral coloration through expression of fluorescent proteins and non-fluorescent chromoproteins, are of interest to many.

31/12/2017 · The Affect of Wavelengths of Light on Rate of Photosynthesis

Black light, or UV-A radiation, produced by a fluorescent lamp was used to determine if zooxanthellae can utilize these wavelengths in photosynthesis. About 28% of this lamp's output is in the range visible to the average human eye, according to analysis with a spectrometer. See Figures 5 through 7, & Table 3.

testing the effects of light intensity on photosynthesis.

Read Effects of Wavelength and Light Intensity on Photosynthetic Activity ..

Although we might think of the coral skeleton as perfectly white and a good reflector of all wavelengths, it is not. This was determined by comparing light absorbed/reflected by a sample of a skeleton to that absorbed/reflected by a reflectance standard (Spectralon 99% diffuse standard.) As Figure 30 shows, violet/ blue wavelengths are poorly absorbed (relative to red wavelengths) by the coral skeleton and are thus reflected back through the coral tissue containing zooxanthellae. On the other hand, the skeleton absorbs red wavelengths with better efficiency; hence less red light is reflected.

Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) are also found in zooxanthellae. Two xanthophylls (diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin) play an important role in protecting symbiotic algae and coral hosts from excessive light energy. When light energy is sufficient enough to effect pH changes within the photosynthetic apparatus of zooxanthellae, diadinoxanthin is converted to diatoxanthin. This conversion shunts light energy away from photosynthesis. In darkness, the process reverses, and diatoxanthin becomes diadinoxanthin. Note that these xanthophylls both absorb some violet but most strongly blue wavelengths at ~450 - 490nm. See Figure 28.

effect of wavelength on photosynthesis

What is the effect of light intensity on photosynthesis?

State Transition: A redistribution of collected light energy from one photosystem to another, thus allowing photosynthesis to occur in an efficient manner. Redistribution is known to occur in some zooxanthellae clades, usually from Photosystem II to Photosystem I, and prevents a damaging traffic jam of electrons. State Transition is also known as 'spill-over.'

The standard method for determining light requirements for corals' zooxanthellae has been examination of absorption characteristics of photopigments such as chlorophyll , chlorophyll etc. (good) or action spectrums (better). Both are not without problems. Absorption characteristics are usually based on pigments extracted in solvents. Spectral characteristics shift slightly according to the extraction solvent used, and photopigments, when combined, also change these characteristics slightly. A better way is to examine the action spectrum of zooxanthellae isolated from a stony coral. This is usually done with a monochromator, where a beam of pure color (hue) illuminates a culture of dinoflagellates and a reaction is determined (such as oxygen evolution). A chart of wavelengths versus reaction is then made. See Figure 1. This method also suffers from deficiencies - the two Photosystems (I and II) absorb light wavelengths with difference efficiencies, hence a monochromator might stimulate one photosystem, but not the other, and photosynthesis might not proceed efficiently (although 'spill-over' - also called State Transitions 1 or 2 - could perhaps overcome this problem - something very much in the discovery phase for zooxanthellae.) See Kirk (2000) for further details on action spectrums.

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The radiometric power of a photon matters not in photosynthesis - a blue photon (with high radiometric power) will drive photosynthesis just as well as a photon of lesser energy (say, a red photon.) So, it would seem that the issue is settled. It is not. The adage 'a photon is a photon' is true when discussing light production by various light sources, but it is not correct when considering how different light wavelengths (or bandwidths) promote photosynthesis.

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