Synthesis of tin Oxide Nanoparticles by Mechanical Reaction
Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Structures on Glass, Silicon and Indium Tin Oxide Substrates
Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline tin oxide ..
and and (2010)Synthesis of fluorine doped tin oxide nanoparticles by sol–geltechnique and their characterization. Journal of Sol-Jel Science Technology, 53. pp. 316-321. ISSN 0928-0707
In general, metal oxide aerogels can be prepared by carefully hydrolyzing a respective metal alkoxide in a solvent. Because of the increased sensitivity of most metal alkoxides over silicon alkoxides, often times very dry solvents and tightly controlled amounts of water must be used, and often times also cryogenic temperatures to slow the reaction rates down to a productive speed. Schematically the process proceeds similar to silica alkoxide sol-gel chemistry, in that alkoxide groups are hydrolyzed to hydroxyl groups, and then hydroxyl groups from two molecules condense, resulting in a metal-oxygen-metal bridge. This proceeds, resulting in the formation of a metal oxide sol which can then crosslink into a metal oxide gel. The gels can then purified, aged, and supercritically dried similar to other gels. Generally speaking, though, the quality of metal oxide gels made through alkoxide chemistry is generally poor (mechanically and optically speaking).
Preparation of tin oxide (PDF Download Available)
In the mid-1990’s, Drs. Tom Tillotson, Alex Gash, Joe Satcher, John Poco, Larry Hrubesh, and Randall Simpson at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a new technique for synthesizing metal oxide gels: epoxide-assisted gelation of metal salts. This technique proved to not only enable preparation of metal oxide gels previously not possible, but also made synthesis of metal oxide gels much easier and resulted in stronger gels (and thus aerogels) with much better monolithicity. Gash further developed the technique in the early 2000’s by identifying the underlying mechanisms and extending it to many new elements. For this reasons the technique is commonly referred to as the “Gash Prep”.
on heating the mixture of a metal and another metal oxide, such as magnesium powder and black copper(II) oxide, a very exothermic reaction occurs in a shower of sparks and white magnesium oxide is formed with brown bits of copper:
Synthesis of tin oxide activated by DAN grafting and …
In this technique, a hydrated metal salt (such as a nitrate or a chloride) is dissolved in a solvent (such as water, ethanol, or half-water/half-ethanol), to which an epoxide (such as propylene oxide or epichlorohydrin) is added dropwise. The metal salts exist as some sort of aquo complex in solution (that is, they have water ligands attached to them). The epoxide then acts as a proton scavenger, stealing a proton away from the metal complex and protonates itself, resulting in an irreversible ring-opening reaction. The pH of the system, in turn, gently increases, and aquo-hydroxy metal complexes form. These species, which contain M-OH sites, can then condense together to form metal-oxygen-metal bridges (similar to the way Si-OH groups condense together to form silicon-oxygen-silicon bridges)–the necessary connectivity for producing a metal oxide gel. Upon supercritical drying of the resulting gel, a metal oxide aerogel is produced.
Although Samuel Kistler is reported to have prepared aerogels of tin oxide in the 1930’s, the next metal oxide aerogels wouldn’t pop up until the 1980’s. These were the first alumina aerogels, first synthesized by Dr. Bulant Yoldas through the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum tri-sec-butoxide–a viscous, difficult-to-handle aluminum alkoxide with the consistency of honey. Suffice it to say this technique has its limitations and produced alumina aerogels of limited quality as a result. Aerogels of titania, zirconia, hafnia, vanadia, niobia, and tantala were eventually prepared using alkoxides as well, however unlike silica, good monolithicity and high optical transparency were hard to achieve in these aerogels.
Formation of Nanoporous Tin Oxide ..
Non-aqueous Synthesis of Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and …
The present study illustrates the characteristics and co-precipitationmethod for synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles.
Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide …
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions
Synthesis of Tin Oxide Thick Film and Its Investigation …
A novel synthesis of tin oxide thin films by the sol-gel process for optoelectronic applications
Synthesis of Silver, Chromium, Manganese, Tin and …
Up until the 1990’s, metal oxide aerogels had been historically much more difficult to synthesize than silica aerogels, largely because there were no good synthetic routes for making metal oxide gels. This is mostly due to the difficulty associated with handling metal alkoxide compounds (as they hydrolyze readily), or in some cases simply because of there aren’t any or any good metal alkoxides for a particular metal.
“Characterization of tin oxide films prepared as …
As mentioned, this technique is not limited to just chromium salts, and works with a wide variety of metal salts, preferably nitrates and chlorides. Alumina, titania, zirconia, hafnia, niobia, tantala, tungsten oxide, iron oxide, indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tin oxide aerogels can readily be prepared with this technique, to name a few. Using this technique, Drs. Jeffrey Long and Debra Rolison of the United States Naval Research Laboratory have demonstrated preparation of magnetic iron oxide aerogels.
Simple route for synthesis of tin dioxide nanorods …
Box 1126 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway), AC(Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007, Bergen, Norway), AD(Department of Materials Science, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamilnadu, Madurai-625021, India; Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, USA), AE(Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, USA; Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, USA)A novel and simple chemical method based on sol-gel processing wasproposed to deposit metastable orthorhombic tin oxide (SnOx) thin filmson glass substrates at room temperature.
Synthesis of fluorine doped tin oxide nanoparticles by …
Structure, size and surface morphology of the tin oxidewas studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
LARGE-SCALE SYNTHESIS OF TIN-DOPED INDIUM OXIDE …
The XRD patterns confirm that all the films, irrespective of thesolvents used for preparation, were polycrystalline in nature andcontained a mixed phases of tin (II) oxide and tin (IV) oxide in ametastable orthorhombic crystal structure.
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