Synthesis of Radiolabeled Compounds
The 4 compounds elicited similar inhibitory effects on the synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA.
Online Essays: SYNTHESIS of radioactive compounds …
T1 - Synthesis of high specific activity 80mBr and 123I labelled 5-halodeoxyuridines and other 80mBr compounds for the study of auger electron toxicity
Investigations from these laboratories ( 1, 2) deal with the accumulation of radioactive di-brom dyes in abscesses and tumors. The radio-dyes are also useful for studies of capillary permeability in so far as their permeation from blood into lymph, too slight to be detected visually in the normal animal, may be quantitatively measured on samples of lymph (3). Dyes of this group make a bond with plasma protein (4), becoming preferentially associated with albumin, and they therefore constitute a radioactive "tracer " for protein under certain experimental conditions. In view of the interest attaching to such matters, as well as the fact that a large group of chemically related but biologically highly varying compounds-the di-azo dyes-may be made radioactive by this technique, the present paper will describe the method used in rendering the molecule radioactive. Chemical and biological properties of the brominated dyes will also be discussed. The molecule is made radioactive by the incorporation of two atoms of radioactive bromine in the di-phenyl portion of the molecule (Figure 1). Bromine atoms, so incorporated into an aromatic ring, do not ionize or dissociate. Thus in using the radio-dye for "tracer " experiments, measurements for radio-bromine constitute measurements for the dye molecule as a whole. The steps involved in this synthesis are as follows: 1. The production of radioactive bromide. 2. Oxidation to radioactive bromine. 3. Bromination of ortho-tolidine. 4. Coupling of this radioactive di-brom tolidine with an amino-naphthol-sulfonic acid to make the finished dye.
Synthesis of Radiolabeled Compounds for ..
The annual world production of tin has been growing slowly in recent years and reached about 268 000 tonnes in 2003. About 10–15% of this figure is recovered metal. The major tin-producing countries are China, Indonesia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and Australia, and significant quantities are also produced in Malaysia and Thailand. The main use of tin, accounting for about 34% of annual global production, is for solder alloys for electrical/electronic and general industrial applications. Tin also finds extensive use (about 25–30% of production) as a protective coating for other metals, especially for food containers. Tin(II) chloride is commercially the most important inorganic compound and is used mainly as a reducing agent in organic and inorganic syntheses and in the manufacture of metallized glazing, glass, and pigments. Tin(IV) chloride is used in organic synthesis, in plastics, as an intermediate in organotin compound manufacture, and in the production of tin(IV) oxide films on glass. Tin(II) fluoride is broadly used in preventive dentistry.
A new synthesis, featuring optical resolution on a nonâradioactive precursor and introduction of the tritium label by reductive dehalogenation, is described.
be Applied for the Synthesis of Radioactive ..
Tin(II) chloride is obtained by dissolving metallic tin in hydrochloric acid or by reducing a solution of tin(IV) chloride with metallic tin. The anhydrous salt is produced by the direct reaction of chlorine and molten tin or by heating tin with hydrogen chloride gas. It is an important industrial reducing agent, used in the preparation of glass and plastic for metallizing, metallized glazing, and electronic components on a plastic base, as a soldering flux, as a mordant in dyeing, and in the manufacture of tin chemicals, colour pigments, and sensitized paper (Graf, 1987; Gaver, 1997; ILO, 1998a; K. Nimmo & S. Blunden, personal communication, 2004). Tin(II) chloride is added to lyophilized kits to prepare 99mTc-labelled tracers (which account for about 80% of radiopharmaceuticals). It is important in nuclear medicine as an essential component in diagnostic agents used to visualize blood, heart, lung, kidney, and bone (Francis et al., 1981; Popescu et al., 1984; Rao et al., 1986). Tin(II) chloride is also used in certain countries as a food additive (as a preservative and colour retention agent) (ATSDR, 2003). Tin(IV) chloride is produced commercially by the direct chlorination of tin at 110–115 °C and is used as a dehydrating agent in organic synthesis, in the production of organotin compounds, in the production of tin(IV) oxide films on glass, as a mordant in the dyeing of silks, in the manufacture of blueprint and other sensitized paper, and as an antistatic agent in synthetic fibre (Graf, 1987; Gaver, 1997; K. Nimmo & S. Blunden, personal communication, 2004).
Chemicals have many uses, including the preservation of food, treatment of diseases, and building and decorating of our homes. Many of these compounds are not found naturally - they are synthesised in chemical factories. Acids and alkalis are some of the most widely used chemicals both in industry and our homes. Chemical reactions that occur can give out energy or take energy in.
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STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS …
SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE SULFUR. BY HERBERT K. ALBER, Microchemical Laboratory, …
HOT SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS LABELLED WITH RADIOACTIVE CARBON
synthesis and applications of isotopically labelled compounds 1991 Download synthesis and ..
of synthesising labelled compounds 690 ..
Synthesis of radioactive zeatin riboside and related compounds by alkylation of purine moieties.
Applied for the Synthesis of Radioactive ..
Animal studies provide evidence that barium compounds, including poorly water soluble barium sulfate, are cleared from the respiratory tract. Collectively, these studies suggest that barium is absorbed following inhalation exposure. Morrow et al. (1964) estimated that the biological half-time of 131BaSO4 in the lower respiratory tract was 8 days in dogs inhaling 1.1 mg barium sulfate/ litre for 30–90 min. Twenty-four hours after an intratracheal injection of 133BaSO4, 15.3% of the radioactivity was cleared from the lungs. The barium sulfate was cleared via mucociliary clearance mechanisms (7.9% of initial radioactive burden) and via lung-to-blood transfer (7.4% of radioactivity) (Spritzer & Watson, 1964). Clearance half-times of 66 and 88 days were calculated for the cranial and caudal regions of the trachea in rats intratracheally administered 2 mg 133BaSO4 (Takahashi & Patrick, 1987). Cuddihy et al. (1974) showed uptake of barium in the bone following inhalation exposure in rats.
Synthesis of organic compounds containing radioactive sulfur
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel precursor compounds of formula (1), which can be used to produce organic compounds which are labelled with radioactive halogen used in positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. In formula (1) , n equals 0; R1 is an ethyl, 1-propyl or isopropyl substitute; X is a group of formula OR2; R2 is a perfluoroalkyl sulphonyl substitute with a straight or branched chain containing 1-7 carbon atoms; and R3 is an alkyloxycarbonyl with a straight or branched chain containing 2-7 carbon atoms.
Notes- Synthesis of a Radioactive Estrogen, 3,4-Dianisyl …
The present invention relates to connection-predecessor, the use of which may be suitable for the production of organic compounds labeled with radioactive halogen, or active ingredients for the diagnostic tools used in positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography.
The synthesis of a radioactive cytokinin with high specific activity.
AB - Convenient preparations of 80mBr- and 123I-labeled 5-halodeoxyuridines, required for basic investigations of Auger electron radiotoxicity, are described. These radioactive thymidine analogs were synthesized from deoxyuridine, radiohalide and N-chlorosuccinimide in dilute sulfuric acid. Yields were 50-60% for 80mBr and 60-70% for 123I. Apparent specific radioactivities (based on UV absorption under the radioactive HPLC peaks) were 150-550 Ci/mmol and over 2000 Ci/mmol for 80mBr and 123I, respectively. 5-[80mBr]Bromouracil was produced in 89% yield when uracil was used. [80-mBr]Bromoantipyrine was produced in higher yield and specific activity using peroxyacetic acid, rather than N-chlorosuccinimide as oxidant (90% and 4,000 Ci/mmol versus 50% and 2000 Ci/mmol).
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