PRUSSIAN BLUE uses a special solution of ferrocyanide.
Now obsolete. Antwerp Blue A variant of Prussian Blue, containing 75 percent extender.
Synthesis of Prussian Blue : chemistry - reddit
Relatively stable, it could be combined with all other pigments and its lightfastness in oil paintings was enhanced when isolated between layers of varnish.
A deep blue colour pigment made from the Indigofera family of plants until 1870, when it was created synthetically.
. Historically copper is a major source of blue or green pigments, which only recently have been available as lightfast compounds. The natural mineral forms (hydrated copper silicate), and were known and used since antiquity. Cyan blue copper carbonate, called blue verditer or bice, is the synthetic form of azurite. It played a minor role in artists' colors in the 18th and 19th centuries (it has a relatively low tinting strength, and was more commonly used as a housepaint). Copper is more important as a constituent of several impermanent, synthetic inorganic green pigments. Verdigris (copper acetate, PG20) is an ancient pigment manufactured by exposing copper strips to acetic acid (vinegar); it fell out of use by the 19th century (not least because it was impermanent and would eat through cellulose). Scheele's green (PG22), the first modern synthetic green pigment, was discovered around 1775 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele; the hue ranged from pale yellow green to deep middle green. Schweinfurt green (copper acetoarsenite, PG21) is an intense, light valued, blue green compound of arsenic and verdigris; it was discovered independently in 1814 by the paint manufacturer Wilhelm Sattler and the chemist Ignaz von Mitis, and commercially manufactured from public recipes after 1822 under a variety of names Vienna green, King's green, Paris green, Mitis green, Parrot green, and (in English speaking countries) emerald green. All these synthetic copper compounds fell out of use by the mid 20th century because they have very poor permanency (they turn black through the formation of copper oxide, PBk15, especially when used with sulfur pigments), and because those containing arsenic are extremely toxic (Schweinfurt green was also sold as a pesticide "the only sure exterminator of the potato bug and cotton worm" reads one 19th century ad and was possibly the poison used to kill Napoleon).
Sonochemical Synthesis of Prussian Blue Nanocubes …
. An important pigment mineral, currently found mostly as a secondary component of blue, green and pigments. The most important modern pigment is manganese violet (manganese ammonium pyrophosphate, ), which was developed by E. Leykauf in 1868 as a replacement for the more expensive cobalt violet, but not offered as an artists' pigment until 1890. It is a moderately saturated, granulating, semitransparent and nonstaining purple, not as intense as the cobalts or modern synthetic organic violets, but very lightfast, and available in several brands of watercolor paints. Manganese blue (barium manganate, ) is a weakly tinting, moderately saturated, granular, semitransparent and nonstaining greenish blue, a near perfect cyan hue for the . The date of its origin and first use as an artists' pigment has been difficult for me to confirm: some sources claim it was discovered in 1907, and states that "barium-manganate compounds of this type have been known to chemists and color makers since the nineteenth century," but a patent on economical methods of manufacture was not granted until 1935 (this synthetic form was used primarily to tint concrete and ceramics), and it was apparently not widely available as an artists' pigment until the 1950's. It is much less popular as a pigment today than it was decades ago (when it was hardly popular at all), not least because it is relatively polluting to manufacture; the principal pigment sources now operate in Asia. Currently only two paint manufacturers (Lukas and Old Holland) still offer manganese blue in watercolors, though many offer a "manganese blue hue" made from a cyan phthalocyanine. Manganese carbonate mixed with calcium carbonate (PW18) is chalk white, used in cheap watercolor paints and sometimes as a whitener for gouache. Manganese also forms some black or dark gray pigments: "bog manganese" or magnesium black (manganese dioxide, PBk14), and the magnetically flocculating manganese ferrite (PBk26).
Cennino Cennini in his says 'the best bones are from the second joints and wings of fowls and capons; the older they are, the better; put them into the fire just as you find them under the table.' It was used as a ground for panels.
A synthetic copper blue pigment without the permanency of Azurite.
Nanocomposite of a chromium Prussian blue with TiO2. …
The degree of ordering of the [FeII(CN)6]4– vacancies in all Prussian blues was quantified using atomic pair distribution analysis, an ordering that is consistent with the iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectra.
A more exotic iron pigment is iron blue ( sometimes with sodium or potassium ions substituted for the ammonia ion) known to 18th and 19th century artists as Prussian blue, Berlin blue, Paris blue, Milori blue or Chinese blue (). This is the first modern synthetic inorganic pigment, discovered by chance in Berlin (hence the name "Prussian" or "Berlin" blue) in 1704 when the colormaker Heinrich Diesbach attempted to make a crimson pigment called Florentine lake from cochineal, alum, ferrous sulfate and some borrowed potash that was contaminated with animal blood. Diesbach communicated the recipe to his pupil de Pierre, who began to manufacture it in Paris. (Hence "Paris" blue. The label "Chinese" derives from the use of iron blue in the blue patterns on Meissen china, manufactured near Dresden.) Held secret for two decades, the manufacturing process was published in England by John Woodward in 1724, but by then alternative methods of production had been devised and the pigment was being manufactured throughout Europe and in America. It has been used in watercolors since around 1730 and is still sold today, although most watercolor artists now seem to prefer the more intense pigments. PB27 is a dark, unsaturated, staining, semitransparent and completely nontoxic middle blue; the color is sometimes adjusted by mixing with barium sulfate or alumina (which makes antwerp blue, a lighter, greener and less lightfast pigment). Iron blue is very reliable in pure form (both the ASTM reports and my own tests give it "excellent (I)" lightfastness), but it loses permanency if mixed with impurities such as potassium ferrocyanide or with other pigments such as titanium dioxide; my lightfastness tests demonstrated significant lightfastness variations across different watercolor paint manufacturers. Some descriptions of its quirks (for example, that it fades in masstone when exposed to strong light, but returns to its original color in darkness) have been uncritically handed down from the 19th century and are, as far as I can determine, myth. PB27 is currently manufactured as a precipitate from the reaction in solution of iron salts with sodium or potassium ferrocyanide, which is aged and oxidized to create the blue color. The pigment tends to agglomerate into rather stringy clumps that resist milling, but a special manufacturing method developed by BASF in 1982 (using the anodic oxidation of iron particles in hydrogen cyanide acid) produces very fine, pure and easily dispersable pigment particles with an atypically intense reddish color, valuable in printing inks. The pigment prussian green is a fused matrix of iron blue and lead chromate; cyanine blue is a mixture of iron blue and cobalt blue.
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Synthesis of functional polypyrrole/prussian blue and polypyrrole/Ag ..
Prussian blue synthesis essay - ASTEC
the percent yield based on the chemical reaction and the limiting reagent for the synthesis of Prussian blue.
Pigments through the Ages - Overview - Verdigris
Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of K-Rich Prussian Blue for Non-Aqueous Potassium Batteries
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Without the water it's an anhydrous white powder.CYANOGEN- A gas with a univalent radical, added to iron gives ferricyanide salt or Prussian blue.DICHROMIC- A color exhibiting two color phases, usually a transparent color that looks different when white is added as opposed to adding water.
General & Introductory Chemistry
The Evans blue (EB) derivative displayed strong binding ability with albumin; thus, EB-conjugated peptide could be loaded in albumin mixing . Given the long half-life of albumin, the conjugated peptide could remain for several days. The strategy is useful in developing long-acting therapeutics. Another conjugate composed of the EB derivative, tumor-targeted peptide and chelator was synthesized and bound to albumin . The chelater could bind to Cu-64 for tumor-targeted PET imaging or to therapeutic isotopes for tumor-targeted radiotherapy.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Containing only traces of the genuine Ultramarine, it is a permanent but weak grey-blue colour.
This variant of synthetic Blue Ultramarine is a weak bluish green of low tinting strength.
Egyptian blue: the colour of technology - Journal of …
Prussian Blue turns slightly dark purple when dispersed in oil paint.
Obsolete yellow obtained from the bark of the black quercitron oak from America.
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