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q Phthalic anhydride may be combustible at high temperature.

Santhanam, B. and Boons, G.-J. 2003. Phthalic Anhydride. e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. .

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Heating IV (R = CO2Me) to 130-140° gave phthalic acid deriv.

Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to a variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis. Important derivatives include phthalimide and its many derivatives.

q Exposure to phthalic anhydride may occur during the manufacture of phthalate-derived products.

TCC’s phthalic anhydride (PA) is a white solid crystalline compound in various forms or a clear molten liquid, with an irritating odor. It is slightly soluble in hot water, hydrolysing to Phthalic Acid. PA is soluble in alcohol and carbon disulphide. It reacts with strong oxidants and responds violently when heated with copper oxide or sodium nitrite, to cause an explosion hazard.

Preparation of phthalic anhydride

Phthalic anhydride is presently obtained by catalytic oxidation of ortho–xylene or naphthalene. When separating the phthalic anhydride from production by products such as o–xylene in water, or maleic anhydride, a series of “switch condensers” is required. Phthalic anhydride can also be prepared from phthalic acid.

Phthalic anhydride is widely used in industry for the production of certain dyes. A well-known application of this reactivity is the preparation of the anthroquinone dye quinizarin by reaction with para–chlorophenol followed by hydrolysis of the chloride.

It is the anhydride of phthalic acid

One of the main uses of phthalic anhydride is the production of “phthalate” plasticizers such as Vestinol 9 DINP (DiIsoNonyl Phthalate) which are used to produce flexible PVC (Vinyl) products. These include, but are not limited to Wire & Cable applications, coated fabrics, roofing membranes and swimming pool liners.

The primary use of TCC’s phthalic anhydride (PA) is as a chemical intermediate in the production of plastics from vinyl chloride. Phthalate esters that function as plasticizers are derived from phthalic anhydride. Phthalic anhydride has another major use in the production of polyester resins and other minor uses in the production of alkyd resins used in paints and lacquers, certain guys, insect repellents, and urethane polyester polyols.

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    q Tests involving acute exposure of rats have shown phthalic anhydride to have moderate acute toxicity.

  • Phthalic Anhydride - The Chemical Company

    q Animals exposed to heated phthalic anhydride experienced congestion, irritation, and injury of lung cells.

  • Phthalic anhydride for synthesis | VWR

    q Phthalic anhydride was reported to be teratogenic in mice following intraperitoneal injection.

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Home > Phthalic anhydride > Phthalic anhydride for synthesis

Abstract: A study of the crosslinking of an epoxy resin with phthalic anhydride catalyzed by an imidazole catalyst has been carried out using differential scanning calorimetry, middle infrared and near infrared. The data from these methods indicate the process is a ...

Phthalic anhydride for synthesis

Phthalic anhydride is used in the manufacture of plasticisers, polyester and alkyd resins. It is also used in the manufacture of phthaleins, phthalates, benzoic acid, synthetic indigo, artificial resins, synthetic fibres, dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and chlorinated products.

Synthesis of Phthalic and Maleic Anhydrides from n …

Phthalic anhydride is an important chemical intermediate in the plastics industry from which are derived numerous phthalate esters that function as plasticisers in synthetic resins. Phthalic anhydride itself is used as a monomer for synthetic resins such as glyptal, the alkyd resins, and the polyester resins. It is also used as a precursor of anthraquinone, phthalein, rhodamine, phthalocyanine, fluorescein, and xanthene dyes.

Chemwatch » Phthalic Anhydride

Phthalic anhydride is a versatile intermediate in organic chemistry, in part because it is bifunctional and readily available. The primary use of phthalic anhydride (PA) is as a chemical intermediate in the production of plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC).


Phthalic anhydride is used in the synthesis of primary amines, the agricultural fungicide phaltan, and thalidomide. Other reactions with phthalic anhydride yield phenolphthalein, benzoic acid, phthalylsulfathiazole (an intestinal antimicrobial agent), and orthophthalic acid.

Production of phthalic anhydride from xylene - …

Phthalic anhydride is released to the environment from chemical plants, mainly those that manufacture the chemical or use it in the production of plastics and resins. The major sources of these releases are process off-gases and industrial effluents; however, the use of catalytic oxidation now reduces the release of pollutants in off-gases. Phthalic anhydride has been identified but not quantified in U.S. drinking water and in the volatile flavour components of baked Idaho potatoes. No information was found for the transport of phthalic anhydride in the environment or in soil. However, in moist soil, the chemical will hydrolyse to phthalic acid and significant leaching is not expected to occur, other than in the case of a large spill. Phthalic anhydride is not expected to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Plants and animals exposed to radiolabelled di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in a microecosystem contained, but did not accumulate to any great extent, phthalic anhydride, a metabolite of DEHP.

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