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Natural sources of benzoic acid

Precursors of benzoic acid

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Geoaccumulation of benzoic acid has also been found to be low.

In short-term studies with rats, disorders of the central nervous system (benzoic acid/sodium benzoate) as well as histopathological changes in the brain (benzoic acid) were seen after feeding high doses (>1800 mg/kg body weight) over 5-10 days.

In humans, the acute toxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is low.

Kubota K, Horai Y, Kushida K, Ishizaki T (1988) Determination of benzoic acid and hippuric acid in human plasma and urine by high performance liquid chromatography.

Table 5: Genotoxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in vitro.

Sixteen out of 71 deodorants tested contained benzoic acid (Rastogi et al., 1998).

Half-lives of 7.3 h and 18.2 h, respectively, have been observed for aerobic and anaerobic degradation of benzoic acid (initial concentration 1 mg/kg dry weight; metabolized to 14CO2) in subsurface soils of septic tank tile fields (Ward, 1985).

Anaerobic degradation of benzoic acid (initial concentration 250 mg carbon/litre) in a methanogenic microcosm (consisting of aquifer solids and groundwater) required 4 weeks of adaptation, followed by nearly complete depletion after 8 weeks of incubation (Suflita & Concannon, 1995).

Table 7: Aquatic toxicity of benzoic acid.

Table 1: Removal of benzoic acid in freshwater, marine, and soil matrices.

8.5.1 Benzoic acid Benzoic acid tested negative in several Ames tests and in one DNA damage assay with different Salmonella typhimurium strains in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (McCann et al., 1975; Ishidate et al., 1984; Nakamura et al., 1987; Zeiger et al., 1988).

Although sodium benzoate tested negative in a cytogenetic assay with WI-38 cells in the absence of metabolic activation (US FDA, 1974), consistently positive results (in contrast to the negative results of benzoic acid) were obtained in tests on sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations with CHL/CHO and DON cells or human lymphocytes without metabolic activation (Abe & Sasaki, 1977; Ishidate & Odashima, 1977; Ishidate et al., 1984, 1988; Xing & Zhang, 1990).

Sixty-five out of 122 samples tested contained detectable benzoic acid.
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  • Halvorson DO (1984) Determination of benzoic acid in air.

    Concentrations of naturally occurring benzoic acid in several foods did not exceed average values of 40 mg/kg of food.

  • (1983) Primary eye irritation of benzoic acid to rabbits.

    For benzoic acid, two limited studies gave no indication of adverse reproductive or developmental effects.

  • Carboxylic acid - Synthesis of carboxylic acids | …

    4.2.1 Benzoic acid Benzoic acid is produced exclusively by the liquid-phase oxidation of toluene (Srour, 1998).

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Synthesis of benzoic acid from chlorobenzene under pressure

According to Srour (1998), the estimated global production capacity of benzoic acid is 638 000 tonnes per year, although over half of this is converted directly to phenol.

Preparation of Benzyl Alcohol and Benzoic Acid - …

The major producers of benzoic acid are the Netherlands (220 000 tonnes per year) and Japan (140 000 tonnes per year), followed by the USA (125 000 tonnes per year).

Synthesis of 3-Nitrobenzoic acid ..

Benzoic acid is detected in car exhaust gases, presumably as an oxidation product of toluene (Kawamura et al., 1985), and in Japanese cigarettes (12 and 28 µg per cigarette in mainstream and sidestream smoke, respectively; Sakuma et al., 1983).

Essay Separation of Benzoic Acid and Acetanilide - …

It can also be produced through the photochemical degradation of benzoic acid esters used as fragrance ingredients (Shibamoto & Umano, 1985; Shibamoto, 1986).

The production of phenol is the most common use for Benzoic Acid

Benzoic acid has been detected in wastewater from the wood production industry in Norway and Sweden (Carlberg et al., 1986; Lindström & Österberg, 1986) and in foundry waste leachates (Ham et al., 1989), as well as in extracts of fly ash from municipal incinerators (Tong et al., 1984).

Mechanism of the hydrolysis of benzonitrile to benzoic acid

4.3.1 Benzoic acid In 1988, of the benzoic acid produced in Europe, about 60% was further processed to phenol and 30% to caprolactam (for nylon fibres).

Synthesis of benzoic acid from sodium hypochlorite …

SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE Benzoic acid is produced by many plants as an intermediate in the formation of other compounds (Goodwin, 1976).

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