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(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium Chloride …

DL-Carnitine Hydrochloride C0172 Chlorocholine Chloride C1180 (3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium Chloride (ca.

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of N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium ..

The APMP modification using CHTPAC followed the general procedure that has been used for the preparation of other cationic polysaccharides (Ebringerova et al. 1994; Liu et al. 2011; Ren et al. 2006). The reaction scheme of the poplar APMP fibers with CHTPAC is shown in Fig. 1. Sodium hydroxide was used here to 1) make APMP fibers swell in order to increase the accessibility of reaction sites as well as the reaction efficiency, as reported in the cationization of celulose, hemicellulose, kraft lignin, and starch with glycidyl-trimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) in the literatures (Ebringerova et al. 1994; Kong et al. 2015; Liu et al. 2011; Wei et al. 2008), 2) function as a catalyst in this reaction to produce 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in situ from CHPTAC (Fig.1a), and 3) generate nucleophilic intermediate from hydroxyl groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in APMP fibers. This nucleophilic intermediate attacks the highly reactive epoxy group on 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride through an oxirane ring-opening reaction to produce CHTPAC-grafted APMP fibers (Fig.1b). Under alkaline conditions, the CHTPAC can also hydrolyze into a diol structure (Cho et al. 2006), which is an undesirable side reaction, limiting the overall reaction efficiency (Fig.1c). In addition, the hydrolysis of CHTPAC-grafted APMP fibers produced in the process may happen in this system under alkaline conditions (Fig.1d), as observed and reported in the cationization of hemicellulose using GTMAC by Liu et al. (2011) and the cationization of lignin using GTMAC by Kong et al.(2015). The grafting of CHTPAC onto APMP fiber surface renders the pulp cationic charge from the quaternary ammonium group of CHTPAC, which would increase the pulp strength properties. In order to maximize the reaction efficiency and minimize these side reactions, the reaction conditions were optimized based on the tensile index of the resultant pulp using RSM method.

Guar gum, 2-hydroxypropyl 2-hydroxy-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl ether, chloride

Fig. 1. Reaction schemes of a) production of 2, 3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride; b) grafting of APMP fibers; c) hydrolysis of CHTPAC, and d) hydrolysis of cationic fibers under alkaline condition

(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium Chloride…

To increase the affinity between fibers of APMP, a cationic modified agent is required. 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) was reported to be a good cationic agent (Fang et al. 2013). In this work, CHPTAC was chosen as a cationic agent to modify APMP fibers and enhance the APMP pulp physical strength. The effects of modification parameters including CHPTAC dosage, NaOH dosage, and pulp concentration on pulp strength properties were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). At the same time, elementary analysis, charge density analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), and internal bond strength, as well as zero span tensile analysis were employed to characterize the properties of the modified APMP fibers.

A cationic hydroxylethyl cellulose-based flocculant for clay suspension was prepared by copolymerizing cellulose with N,N-dimethylacrylamide and acrylamide (Kaewkuk et al. 2013). Quaternized celluloses were homogeneously synthesized by reacting cellulose with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in NaOH/urea aqueous solutions (Song et al.2008). Fibers of aspen chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP), spruce CTMP, bleached kraft pulp (BKP), and kraft pulp were reported to be treated by low-temperature plasma (air) aiming at the detection of the relationship between chemical components on the surface and the properties of paper sheets. It was found that plasma treatment did not remove lignin on fiber surface in large amounts but improved the final strength properties of paper sheets (Xiao et al. 2015). However, chemical modification of APMP pulp fibers has not yet been investigated.

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Figure 4 shows the FTIR spectra of the APMP fibers and the modified APMP fibers. As the modification in this study is a cationization of APMP fibers with CHTPAC, which is grafted onto pulp fibers through etherification reaction between –OH group on fibers and epoxy group on 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride, it should be pointed out here that the OH group on fibers includes OH group of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of pulp fibers, as the cationization of these components using CHTPAC agent has been reported to be feasible at similar conditions in previous studies (Kong et al. 2015; Peng et al. 2012; Yan et al. 2009). As illustrated in Fig. 4, the IR spectra of the APMP fibers and the modified fibers show a broad O-H stretching band at 3429 cm-1 due to hydrogen-bonded hydroxyls. The bands at 2909 cm-1 are assigned to the symmetric C-H vibration band of CH3 group, and the bands at 2837 cm−1 are assigned to the stretching vibration of –CH2– groups. Compared with the spectrum of unmodified APMP fibers, the spectrum of modified APMP fibers provides the evidence of modification. Clearly, the modification reactions were monitored by being observed an enhancement in the intensity of the ether bond absorbance at 1043 cm-1. A change appeared in an increase in intensity of the band at 1411cm-1 assigned to the C-N stretching vibration (Pal et al. 2005; Peng et al. 2012). These changes represented a clear proof of incorporation of cationic agent onto the APMP fibers. In addition, a decrease in the absorption band for hydroxyl groups (OH) at 3429 cm-1 in modified APMP fibers as compared to the spectrum of unmodified APMP indicated a partial etherification. These findings are consistent with those reported for the reactions of cellulose (Yan et al. 2009; Hebeish et al. 2010), carboxymethyl cellulose (Kolya et al. 2013), hemicellulose (Peng et al. 2012) and kraft lignin (Kong et al. 2015) with the similar cationic agent.

The CHPTAC was alkali-treated to obtain the more reactive form EPTAC. Scheme 1[a] presents the mechanism of synthesis of EPTAC. As a fast reaction, the chlorohydrin CHPTAC is converted to the epoxide EPTAC using alkali (Moral et al. 2015). Likewise, in each experiment (Table 1), the CMP and SLF were alkalized at an alkaline solution concentration of 20% (on the basis of oven-dry pulp mass), at 23 °C and kneaded well for 20 min. The treatment took place by the addition of an aqueous NaOH solution in a plastic bag containing pulp fiber. Subsequently, a hydroxyl group of the cellulose was converted into an alkoxide by reacting with an alkali (NaOH).

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  • (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride in …

    DL-Carnitine Hydrochloride C0172 Chlorocholine Chloride C1180 (3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium Chloride (ca.

  • (3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride; ..

    Cationization of cotton fabrics was performed utilizing 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride ..

  • Epoxidation of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium ..

    (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride in solution and in..

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with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride ..

Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP) is a newly emerging high yield pulp (HYP) with numerous advantages. However, the drawback of the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp from untreated plant biomass is its poor network strength. In this work, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) modification was proposed to enhance pulp network strength by fiber surface modification that could enhance fiber bonding. Three factors were analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize treatment conditions based on factorial designs. The results showed that the optimal conditions were CHPTAC dosage of 0.8% (oven-dry pulp), NaOH dosage of 0.1% (oven-dry pulp), and pulp concentration of 8%. The modified pulp fibers were characterized by elemental analysis, charge density analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), and internal bond strength analysis, as well as zero span tensile analysis. The physical strength of the modified APMP pulp was increased in terms of tensile index, tear index, and burst index. After modification, the tensile index, tear index, and burst index increased by 35.3%, 29.2%, and 16.7% respectively. The internal bonding strength increased by 144.4%; however, the increase of zero span tensile index of modified pulp fibers was insignificant.

at first the synthesis of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate ..

Bleached softwood kraft pulp (spruce) in the form of dried sheet was purchased from U-ilimsk Mill, Russia. The CMP prepared from native hardwoods was found north of Iran, and included Carpinus, Betulus, Populus, and Fagus in a ratio of 56:26:18 (without any additive, CSF 320) and a consistency of 5% was obtained from a pulp and paper mill in Mazandaran, Iran. The cationic ester quaternary ammonium salt was an aqueous solution of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) at 60% (w/w), and the NaOH pellets were purchased from Sigma Aldrich.

by 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl-trimethylammonium ..

The addition of amine groups to fibers is a commonly used method in functionalizing cellulosic fibers and cationization, which is obtained through a polymer precipitate onto the fiber. Generally, the cationic modification of cellulose is achieved through the etherification of 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EPTAC). However, the EPTAC, is unstable, toxic, and cannot be safely applied in industrial applications (Prado and Matulewicz 2014). An alternative to EPTAC is the use of environmentally friendly and stable form of (trimethylammonium) propyl group as 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium-chloride (CHPTAC). The CHPTAC has successfully been used for the cationization of cellulose (Hashem et al. 2003a,b; Song et al.2008), textile fibers (Liu et al. 2007; Montazer et al. 2007; Khalil-Abadet et al. 2009), and other polysaccharides (Pal et al. 2009; Prado et al. 2011; Hashem et al. 2013; Rashidi Jouybari 2012, 2013, 2015). Cationization affects the anionic surface charge density, which can settle the issues related to the repulsion and thereby increase the reactivity of the components used in papermaking (Schempp et al. 1983; Gess et al. 1989; Montplaisir et al. 2006a).

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