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(short animations of biological processes) Water/Buffers. Proteins

Protein Synthesis Animation, free protein synthesis animation freeware software downloads

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Simple animation protein synthesis

To understand the oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin, wewill focus briefly on the structure of the protein and the metalcomplexes embedded in it.

Each gene acts as a code, or set of instructions, for making a particular protein

Thus, hemoglobin's biological function is regulated by thechanging of the overall protein structure. This structure isaltered by the binding or releasing of CO2 and H+to the interfaces of the subunits in hemoglobin (Figure 8).

From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

Work horses of the cell, proteins serve as structural material, hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters as well as play many other roles.

The shape change in the heme group has important implicationsfor the rest of the hemoglobin protein, as well. When the ironatom moves into the porphyrin plane upon oxygenation, thehistidine residue to which the iron atom is attached is drawncloser to the heme group. This movement of the histidine residuethen shifts the position of other amino acids that are near thehistidine (Figure 6). When the amino acids in a protein areshifted in this manner (by the oxygenation of one of the hemegroups in the protein), the structure of the interfaces betweenthe four subunits is altered. Hence, when a single heme group inthe hemoglobin protein becomes oxygenated, the whole proteinchanges its shape. In the new shape, it is easier for the otherthree heme groups to become oxygenated. Thus, the binding of onemolecule of O2 to hemoglobin enhances the ability ofhemoglobin to bind more O2 molecules. This property ofhemoglobin is known as "cooperative binding."

Translation is the process of producing proteins from the mRNA. This YouTube video shows the molecular components involved in the process. It also animates how the peptide is elongated through interaction between mRNA, ribosome, tRNA, and residues.

A Science Odyssey: You Try It: DNA Workshop Activity

The process of polymerization of amino acids to form a polypeptide is called as Translation. It is the second and final step of protein synthesis. The order into which the amino acids are arranged is defined by the bases in mRNA (messenger). Ribosome is the cellular factory responsible for the protein synthesis. The ribosome consists of structural RNAs and about 80 different . It is in inactive stage and exists as two subunits, one large and other small. The synthesis of begins when the small subunit encounters an mRNA. The ribosome also acts as a catalyst for the formation of bonds.

This is a molecular model of hemoglobin with the subunits displayed in the ribbon representation. A ribbon representation traces the backbone atoms of a protein and is often used to represent its three-dimensional structure. The four heme groups are displayed in the ball-and-stick representation.

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Virtual Microbiology Classroom: 8-week micro course …

The construction of the proteins is carried out on the of the host . There are free floating ribosomes where proteins are built for functions in the cytoplasm. Those proteins which are to be used as part of the cell membrane or transported outside the cell are manufactured on ribosomes which are attached to the .

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Each gene acts as a code, or set of instructions, for making a particular protein. Some of these proteins control the cell's internal chemistry. They tell the cell what to do, give the organism its characteristics, and determine the way its body works.

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