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The Scientific Method - Science Made Simple

Insight #6: Do we see more than we suppose? Two separate vision systems hypothesis

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Understanding and Using The Scientific Method

Like stoicism, a school of philosophy which existed some two thousand years ago. Rational emotive
behavior therapy holds that there are virtually no good reasons why human beings have to make
themselves very neurotic, no matter what kind of negative stimuli impinge on them. It gives them full
leeway to feel strong negative emotions, such as sorrow, regret, displeasure, annoyance, rebellion, and
determination to change social conditions. It believes, however, that when they experience certain
self-defeating and unhealthy emotions (such as panic, depression, worthlessness, or rage), they are
usually adding an unrealistic and illogical hypothesis to their empirically-based view that their own acts or
those of others are reprehensible or inefficient and that something would better be done about changing
them.

by the OCR system is treated as the basis for a separate null hypothesis

(9)Furthermore, the mass-noun hypothesis and the collective-noun hypothesis have different epistemological implications. If the mass-noun hypothesis is right, one appears to be not obliged to commit oneself to any kind of abstraction: not only the abstract object at the ontonic level regarding what exists but also the abstraction at the conceptual level regarding people's cognitive process. For, according to Hansen, once one wants to refer to a particular part of this stuff-whole, one just uses one's mind "not as repositories of weird [abstract] objects called ideas, but as the faculty encompassing the abilities and inclinations to discriminate stuffs from each other." (Nevertheless, I will explain why such discrimination could not be free of abstraction.)

hypothesis Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

hypothesis meaning, definition, what is hypothesis: an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been…. Learn more.



Until the end of the 17th century, people believed that little animals like flies andworms could spontaneously be born from substances in decomposition or from mud. FrancescoRedi, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur made experiments which proved the idea of thespontaneous generation was wrong. At your home or in your school you can made suchexperiments too.
1 - Take two glass jars with a screw top. Put in each a little piece of cooked apple and aspoon of vinegar. For a night, leave one of these jars opened so it can be visited byvinegar (fruit) flies. Close the other jar with the lid and sterilize it by placing it inboiling water in a pressure cooker for a half an hour. After removing it from the cooker,let it cool, leaving it closed. The morning after, let the possible bugs present into thefirst jar leave and then close it with a fine gauze or a plastic sheet on which you willmake some pinholes to allow oxygen to enter. After a few days, you should see some bugs inthe first jar, and none in the second one. What has happened in the first jar which hasnot happened in the second? Some vinegar flies laid eggs in the first jar and from themsome new flies are born. In the second jar, even if there had been eggs, these are deadbecause of high temperature in the pressure cooker. More eggs were not laid because thejar was kept closed. With experiments like this one, you can realize that living beingscannot born from nothing, but they are born from other organisms like them. Fall is themore suited season to do this experiment because vinegar flies are particularly active.
2 - Anyway you can try to adapt this experiment to organisms present at other times of theyear. For example, if you place some dry grass in a water glass, in few days a deal ofprotists will appear. If instead you will put the same material in a close glass pot andif you boil it, nothing will be born. Only some rare thermoresistant microorganisms,bacteria which resist the high temperature of boiling water.
... Uhm, and still there is something which is not working: if any living being comes fromanother living being, from where has come the first living being from which all others arederived? Can we consider completely falsified the theory of the spontaneous generationwith these experiments? Is it possible to assert that, even if the spontaneous generationis not the usual way with which living creatures are born, at least at one time duringbillions of years it has happened on the Earth or another place in the Universe? It is noaccident that there are scientists who study how life began in the first place.
Spontaneous Generation
Spontaneous Generation
Internet keywords: spontaneous generation.

But far more important and relevant to science than determining whether intelligence-guided immunity exists is the determination of whether an extensive degree of universe-guided developmental immunity already exists in our current physics, as the transcension hypothesis claims.

"Language of Thought Hypothesis | Internet …

The Scientific Method is a process used to design and perform experiments

Similarly, when people perceive (let us suppose, correctly) the erroneous and unjust acts of others,
and become enraged at these others, they are shown how to stop and ask themselves, "Why is my
hypothesis that the people who committed these errors and injustices are no damned good a true
hypothesis? Granted that it would be better if they acted more competently or fairly, why should
they have to do what would be better?" REBT teaches that to be human is to be fallible, and that
if we are to get on in life with minimal upset and discomfort, we would better accept this reality and
then unanxiously work hard to become a little less fallible.

The available linguistic evidence thus suggests that, first, given that the function-pattern of Chinese nouns is a non-count-noun pattern, a collective-noun hypothesis seems to be a more reasonable interpretation of the folk semantics of Chinese nouns than a mass-nouns hypothesis; second, what the folk semantics of Chinese nouns encourages and shapes, if any, seems to be a collection-of-individuals paradigm of reality rather than a mass-stuff paradigm of reality.

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon
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  • Giant-impact hypothesis - Wikipedia

    Hypothesis - Wikipedia

  • Avian Mating Systems - Eastern Kentucky University

    The meta-analysis null hypothesis is that all of the separate null hypotheses are true.

  • The Transcension Hypothesis, John M. Smart, 2011

    The Gaia Hypothesis

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AP Biology Exam Review - Clear Biology

Similarly, if we are to find out what can facilitate the learning process, we need to gain a much better understanding of the kinds of interactions and social settings which promote learner development. , for example, argues that task-based methodologies (in which learners have to negotiate with one another in order to perform a meaning-focused activity) force learners to notice 'gaps' in their L2, a prerequisite for filling such gaps. , in her 'pushed output hypothesis', argues that it is when learners' own productions fail to meet their communicative goals that they are forced to revise their linguistic system.

The Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm - Introduction

The UG approach, following in the footsteps of L1 acquisition research, applies the Chomskyan paradigm (; ; ; ) to the study of L2 development. See papers by and in this guide. In a nutshell this linguistic theory claims that humans inherit a mental language faculty which highly constrains the shape that human languages can take and therefore severely limits the kind of hypotheses that children can entertain regarding the structure of the language they are exposed to. This is why children acquire their first language easily and speedily, in spite of its complexity and abstractness, at an age when they are not cognitively equipped to deal with abstract concepts generally. In this view, the core of language is separate from other aspects of cognition, although it operates in close interaction with them of course. If the L2 developmental route is similar in many respects to the L1 route, then it must also be because the innate UG constrains L2 development. This approach has given rise to a wealth of studies (see for example , , ; ; ; ; ; ; , ).

Insight #6: Do we see more than we suppose

It is noted that, in my preceding discussion, for the sake of convenience, I focus on such Chinese nouns like (the collection of horses) or (the collection of water); the references of those collective nouns are either individual physical objects or physical stuff. However, what constitutes a mereological collection in the collective-noun hypothesis is not necessarily something physical, static or individual-object-like. It might well be something dynamic or process-like. In this regard, a hexagram, as a noun-like ideographic symbol serving in the philosophical context of , quite explicitly presents us another typical case of Chinese ideographic nouns under the collective-noun hypothesis. That is, the denotational reference of a hexagram is a collections of dynamic processes with shared changing pattern which is ideographically symbolized by its graphic shape. In my another writing, I have shown that, at the interface between the sub-system of hexagrams in and other parts of Chinese ideographic language, a hexagram could serve syntactically and semantically as a collective noun; and, in the philosophical context of , a hexagram does behave as a characteristic collective noun. In this way, the ideographic semantic structure of the hexagram would constitute not only a strong support and effective illustration of the collective-noun hypothesis but also its significant extension regarding dynamic process reference.

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