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"How Scientifically Sound Research Supports The …

hypothesis testing is the foundational tool necessary to produce accurate, scientifically-sound data

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"How Scientifically Sound Research Supports The Function ..

From an institutional point of view, the frequentist conception ofp-values is problematic as well. Not only does the automatic use ofconventional significance levels imply that much valuable research issuppressed, because “insignificant” results have no chanceof publication. What is more, even in the absence of a causal relationbetween two quantities, one may find a significant (and thereforepublishable) result by pure chance. The probability that this happensby accident is equal to the statistical significance threshold (i.e.,5%) and plausible plausibly larger than the probability that we detectone of the relatively rare true causal relations. Ioannidis (2005)therefore concludes that most published research findings arefalse—an effect partially due to the frequentist logicof evidence. Indeed, researchers often fail to replicate findings byanother scientific team, and periods of excitement and subsequentdisappointment are not uncommon in frontier science.

How Scientifically Sound Research ..

Early on, however, The Lancet sounded a note of alarm that would soon be picked up by others. “The cure should not be worse than the disease,” wrote the editors in 1974, echoing the medical dictum, “first, do no harm”. Perhaps reducing fat in the diet might lead to an increase in carbohydrates, they suggested. In fact, this is precisely what happened. Grains, pasta, rice and potatoes replaced meat, cheese, and eggs on dinner plates. Breakfasts of eggs and fried kippers ceded to bowls of cereal and orange juice. The British now eat 46 per cent less saturated fat than they did in 1975. Meanwhile, UK authorities recommended that two-thirds of calories should come from carbohydrates.

Reliability and Validity: keys to scientifically sound research ..

A theory is a scientifically sound hypothesis which has had strong …

Improving your Title
A good title efficiently tells the reader what the report is about. It may include such information as the subject of the experiment (what it is about), the key research variables, the kind of research methodology used, and the overall findings of the experiment. To make your titles better, follow these guidelines:

Consider the fictional characters Dr Nool and Dr Altman, two researchers collaborating in the study of sleep disorders. One night, Dr Altman falls asleep on his couch after eating an apple. The following morning he knocks on Dr Nool’s door and asks: “What if apples could ease insomnia?”

What Does “Scientifically Proven” Really Mean? | The …

It may sound strange, but researchers rarely ever prove that a hypothesis is right or wrong

Scientists can bring information, insights, and analyticalskills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can helpthe public and its representatives to understand the likelycauses of events (such as natural and technological disasters)and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies (suchas ecological effects of various farming methods). Often they cantestify to what is not possible. In playing this advisory role,scientists are expected to be especially careful in trying todistinguish fact from interpretation, and research findings fromspeculation and opinion; that is, they are expected to make fulluse of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), founded in 1989, is a non profit, policy-oriented, international research center and a think-tank producing high-quality, innovative, interdisciplinary and scientifically sound research on sustainable development. It contributes to the quality of decision-making in public and private spheres through analytical studies, policy advice, scientific dissemination and high-level education. Thanks to its international network, FEEM integrates its research and dissemination activities with those of the best academic institutions and think tanks around the world.

What Does “Scientifically Proven” Really Mean
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  • The Science Behind Dreaming - Scientific American

    Scientific method - Wikipedia

  • Hypothesis Testing - Statistics How To

    Hiccup - Wikipedia

  • Science - definition of science by The Free Dictionary

    A hiccup is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute

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Chapter 1: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE - Project 2061

Inferential statistics—the field that investigates thevalidity of inferences from data to theory—tries to answer thisquestion. It is extremely influential in modern science. For instance,the recent discovery of the Higgs Boson was established through astatistical argument, based on the idea that what is“significant” for one researcher should also besignificant for another. Therefore, this subsection compares the mainschools of inductive/statistical inference with respect to theirobjectivity claims.


This section deals with scientific objectivity as a form ofintersubjectivity—as freedom from personal biases. According tothis view, science is objective to the extent that personal biases areabsent from scientific reasoning, or that they can be eliminated in asocial process. Perhaps all science is necessarilyperspectival. Perhaps we cannot sensibly draw scientific inferenceswithout a host of background assumptions, which may includeassumptions about values. But scientific results should certainly notdepend on researchers' personal preferences or idiosyncraticexperiences. That, among other things, is what distinguishes sciencefrom the arts and other more individualistic human activities—orso it is said. Paradigmatic ways to achieve objectivity in this senseare measurement and quantification. What has been measured andquantified has been verified relative to a standard. The truth, say,that the Eiffel Tower is 324 meters tall is relative to a standardunit and conventions about how to use certain instruments, so it isneither aperspectival nor free from assumptions, but it is independentof the person making the measurement.

A Basic Hypothesis of Psychopathy by Hervey Cleckley

As argued by Howson (2000) and Howson and Urbach (1993), theBayesian's aim is not to determine an intersubjectively binding degreeof confirmation, but to provide sound inference rules for learningfrom experience. In the same way that deductive logic does not judgethe correctness of the premises but just advises you what to inferfrom them, Bayesian inductive logic tells you how tochange your own attitudes as soon as you encounter evidence. All otherupdating rules are susceptible to so-called Dutch books:betting based on following such rules will lead to sure monetarylosses. In addition, convergence theorems guarantee that, as long asnovel evidence keeps coming in, the degrees of belief of agents withvery different initial attitudes will finally converge (Gaifman andSnir 1982). However, one may object that the real problem does not liewith the internal soundness of the updating process, but with thechoice of an appropriate prior, which may be beset with idiosyncraticbias and manifest social values.

A basic hypothesis of Psychopathy - Fried Green …

What Kitcher argues so far is consistent with the traditional viewaccording to which values enter mainly at the first stage ofscientific investigation, problem selection. But then he goes on toobserve that the process of scientific investigation cannot neatly bedivided into a stage in which the research question is chosen, one inwhich the evidence is gathered and one in which a judgment about thequestion is made on the basis of the evidence.

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