Polycystic Ovary Syndrome — NEJM
27/12/2017 · Regulation of Inhibin and Activin Genes in the Rat Ovary
Reproductive Technology in Farm Animals: New Facets …
Multiply recruited follicles develop during the estrous cycle of several animal species and the menstrual cycle of humans. Recruited follicle develops an antrum between the granulosa cells . Tertiary follicle formation is associated with continued proliferation of granulosa and theca cells, further increased thecal vascularization, and further oocyte enlargement. By the transition from secondary to tertiary follicles, the ovary can clearly works as an endocrine organ. Finally, the grown tertiary follicles release matured oocytes. Development and differentiation of tertiary stage follicles is important in selection of dominant follicles, choosing competent oocytes, preserving fertility, and helping fertilization. These processes are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis and the local regulation including hormones and cytokines. Using knockout mice, the critical genes that are important in tertiary follicle growth and functional regulation have now been identified. However, they are very complex, so they are not fully understood and so cannot yet be applied to assisted reproduction. For example, the mechanisms of the explosive growth of tertiary follicles have not been fully elucidated. culture of follicles can help in exploring the role of various candidate genes and chemicals in folliculogenesis. Using an culture system, we can now obtain competent oocytes from follicles or oocyte-cumulus complexes involved in producing a new generation, although the yield is low. Therefore, much more efficient culture technology is needed to improve the quality of oocytes and our understanding of their mechanisms.
The role of melatonin as an endocrine regulator of reproductive activity is well known; however, whether it stimulates or inhibits reproductive function varies across species. We demonstrated that exposure to melatonin reduced steroid production by ovarian theca cells in cattle, implicating melatonin as a regulator of reproductive function in cattle. Because reduced reproductive capacity leads to economic losses, an understanding of the effects of melatonin on ovarian function may lead to new ways to increase reproductive efficiency in cattle.
CSIRO PUBLISHING | Reproduction, Fertility and Development
This research provides new insight into central molecular mechanisms regulating GnRH/LH secretion in anestrous sheep. To better explain this problem, herein, we demonstrated that RF-amide peptides are involved in dopamine-induced inhibition of GnRH/LH secretion. Studies expanded an important issue in the field of neuroendocrinology of reproduction, especially in cognitive appraisals of mechanisms participating in physiological regulation of GnRH/LH biosynthesis.
2) Insensitivity to anti-growth signals: refers to inactivation of tumour suppressor genes that restrict cell cycle progression. Another important hallmark of cancer is the lack of contact inhibition, a normal self-regulatory process where cells stop proliferating once cell-to-cell contact is made. This is best demonstrated by a two-dimensional culture experiment where normal cells stop growing on the medium once a monolayer of cells has been made. In contrast, cancer cells often continue dividing despite sufficient cell-to-cell contact, suggesting a loss of self-regulatory function.
Male- and female-derived somatic and germ cell …
The current TB drug regimen relies on a six-month treatment of four antibiotics, all discovered in the 1950s and ’60s and which primarily inhibit cell-wall and RNA synthesis. (See illustration.) Worldwide, about 3.6 percent of new TB cases and 20 percent of recurring infections are multidrug resistant, according to the WHO.
But even with this collaborative attitude, the research community has struggled to develop successful new TB drugs, in part because the bacterium hides latent inside cells such as macrophages, and unpredictably becomes active in different sites in the lung. “TB drug development is extremely challenging because a drug has to kill not only the replicating but the nonreplicating bacteria,” says Feng Wang of the California Institute for Biomedical Research in La Jolla. To tackle this problem, Wang, along with Peter Schultz at Scripps Research Institute, also in La Jolla, and William Jacobs at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, used a novel screening method to test the effect of 70,000 compounds on a biofilm of Mtb that simulates the latent version of the bacterium. One compound popped out of the screen: TCA1 killed both replicating and nonreplicating Mtb (, 110:E2510-17, 2013). It appeared to attack on two fronts: preventing bacterial cell-wall synthesis and inhibiting a bacterial enzyme involved in cofactor biosynthesis, which is likely what makes it effective against nonreplicating Mtb. (See illustration.) The compound has since proven successful in both acute and chronic animal models of TB, and the team is tweaking the chemistry to try and make it even more potent, says Wang.
Oral Contraceptive Contraindications and Adverse Effects
For amplification of the rat inhibin ..
Calcitonin - Wikipedia
Structure of the Rat Inhibin and Activin βA-Subunit …
Biosynthesis and regulation
Regulation in an Ovarian Granulosa Cell Line
Calcitonin is formed by the proteolytic cleavage of a larger prepropeptide, which is the product of the CALC1 gene
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