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This reflex, or simple reflex arc, ..

are perceived by which component of a reflex arc

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Intelligent races who are not EARTH HUMANS

homogeneous RELATED: isotropic ♦ Having the samepropertiesat every place. Distinguish carefully from 'isotropic'. For example,thestructure of contractile proteins within a skeletal muscle cell ishomogeneous, but not isotropic. Any place in the cell has similarcharacteristics to any other, but these characteristics are verydifferent in different directions.

General works on evolution, psychology, and comparative psychology; cf

Acoustic reflex latency is the time interval between onset of an intense auditory stimulus and onset of middle-ear muscle contraction. The hypothesis was proposed that a retro-cochlear lesion involving the afferent (VIIIth nerve) portion of the reflex arc should result in a prolongation of the reflex latency. A clinical procedure, the Acoustic Reflex Latency Test (ARLT), its protocol, methods and equipment were developed in order to test this hypothesis clinically. Absolute latency values and interaural latency differences (ILD) were established on 4 populations which included normals, cochlear lesions due to Meniere's disease, cochlear lesions of variable etiology, and 11 cases of surgically confirmed acoustic tumor. Results reveal a dramatic prolongation of latency in the presence of retrocochlear le-.sions (all tumors). The test was found to be most effective when 1. both ipsilateral and contralateral measurements were made, 2. stimulus frequencies of 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz were employed and 3. both Absolute Latency and ILD were considered. The ARLT, while utilizing an indirect method of measurement, is a valid, cost-effective, and simple clinical procedure, yielding relative latency values and requiring only minor modifications of standard impedance equipment. The ARLT appears to have a higher efficiency rate than BERA, while providing comparable diagnostic information at a considerable saving of time, cost and personnel.

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This reflex, or simple reflex arc, involves only two nerves and one synapse. The leg begins to jerk up while the brain is just becoming aware of the tap.

For example, when your knee is tapped below the kneecap, causing the leg to jerk upwards. At its simplest a reflex arc can consist of just three neurons: one that reacts to the stimulus, which connects via another in the spinal cord, to a motor neuron that tells a muscle to react. Bypassing the brain in this way produces a quicker reaction.

A neural pathway involved in a reflex response. For example, when your knee is tapped below the kneecap, causing the leg to jerk upwards. At its simplest a reflex arc can consist of just three neurons: one that reacts to the stimulus, which connects via another in the spinal cord, to a motor neuron that tells a muscle to react. Bypassing the brain in this way produces a quicker reaction.

Psych Chap 1 and 2 Quizzes Flashcards | Quizlet

(a) The quality of drawings of the neurones in a reflex arc was generally poor

It has been proposed that parkinsonian tremor is produced either by the activity of an intrinsic thalamic pacemaker or by the oscillation of an unstable long loop reflex arc. The former (central) hypothesis proposes that overactivity of neurons in the internal segment of the globus pallidus inhibits or hyperpolarizes thalamic neurons. When hyperpolarized, thalamic cells oscillate with bursting of the type associated with low threshold calcium spikes (low threshold spike-bursts). Low threshold spike-bursts can be identified by particular patterns of interspike intervals within the burst. The alternative (peripheral) hypothesis proposes that tremor results from oscillation of a reflex arc transmitting activity from muscle stretch receptors of thalamus, motor cortex, and back to the stretched muscle. When the gain of this reflex is increased, the arc may become unstable and oscillate. Oscillations produced by peripheral inputs may produce an acceleration-deceleration pattern within the burst which results in sinusoidal modulation of a spike train if bursting is periodic. We have assessed these two hypotheses by studying he pattern of interspike intervals occurring within bursts recorded in patients with parkinsonian tremor. The spike trains were analysed for 118 cells located in the ventral nuclear group including ventralis intermedius (thalamic cerebellar relay nucleus, n=48) and ventralis oralis posterior (thalamic pallidal relay nucleus, n=39) of patients with parkinsonian tremor. Two cells recorded in ventralis intermedius of a sleeping patient with chronic pain showed bursting activity similar to the low threshold spike-bursts recorded in sleeping animals, suggesting a common mechanism for low threshold spike-bursts across species. Forty-two-cells recorded in patients with parkinsonian tremor (ventralis intermedius, n=19, ventralis oralis posterior, n=12) were classified as tremor-related cells because their activity was characterized by both a concentration of power at tremor frequency and significant correlation with tremor. Eleven tremor-related cells, 10 located in ventralis intermedius or ventralis oralis posterior and most responding to sensory inputs, had an acceleration-deceleration pattern of intraburst firing. Only one cell, a tremor-related cell in ventralis intermedius, showed the pattern expected of presumed low threshold spike-bursts. Therefore, intraburst interspike interval patterns consistent with either the central or the peripheral hypothesis were recorded in the thalamus of patients with parkinsonian tremor. Twenty-one tremor-related cells (15 cells in ventralis intermedius or ventralis oralis posterior) had bursts with intraburst interspike intervals which were independent of position of the interspike interval within the burst. Therefore, the activity of the majority of cells wa not consistent with either hypothesis, suggesting that another oscillatory process may contribute to parkinsonian tremor.

AB - Acoustic reflex latency is the time interval between onset of an intense auditory stimulus and onset of middle-ear muscle contraction. The hypothesis was proposed that a retro-cochlear lesion involving the afferent (VIIIth nerve) portion of the reflex arc should result in a prolongation of the reflex latency. A clinical procedure, the Acoustic Reflex Latency Test (ARLT), its protocol, methods and equipment were developed in order to test this hypothesis clinically. Absolute latency values and interaural latency differences (ILD) were established on 4 populations which included normals, cochlear lesions due to Meniere's disease, cochlear lesions of variable etiology, and 11 cases of surgically confirmed acoustic tumor. Results reveal a dramatic prolongation of latency in the presence of retrocochlear le-.sions (all tumors). The test was found to be most effective when 1. both ipsilateral and contralateral measurements were made, 2. stimulus frequencies of 1000 Hz and 2000 Hz were employed and 3. both Absolute Latency and ILD were considered. The ARLT, while utilizing an indirect method of measurement, is a valid, cost-effective, and simple clinical procedure, yielding relative latency values and requiring only minor modifications of standard impedance equipment. The ARLT appears to have a higher efficiency rate than BERA, while providing comparable diagnostic information at a considerable saving of time, cost and personnel.

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This thesis aims to separate the neural and muscular components of the stapedial acoustic reflex, both anatomically and physiologically. It aims to present an hypothesis to account for the differences between ipsilateral and contralateral reflex characteristics which have so far been unexplained, and achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying reflex dynamics. This is accomplished by both empirical measurement of the contralateral and ipsilateral reflex, and development of a computer model of the reflex system. A review of the pertinent literature, including both physiological and audiological research, is undertaken. A technique enabling faithful reproduction of the time course of the reflex is used throughout the experimental work. The technique measures tympanic membrane displacement as a result of reflex stapedius muscle contraction. The recorded response can be directly related to the mechanics of the middle ear and stapedius muscle contraction. Some development of the technique is undertaken by the author. A model of the reflex neural arc and stapedius muscle dynamics is evolved that is based upon a second order system. The model is unique in that it includes a latency in the ipsilateral negative feedback loop. Oscillations commonly observed on reflex responses are seen to be produced because of the inclusion of a latency in the feedback loop. The model demonstrates and explains the complex relationships between neural and muscle dynamic parameters observed in the experimental work. This more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between the stapedius dynamics and the neural arc of the reflex would not usually have been possible using human subjects, coupled with a non-invasive measurement technique. Evidence from the experimental work revealed the ipsilateral reflex to have, on average, a 5 dB lower threshold than the contralateral reflex. The oscillatory characteristics, and the steady state response, of the contralateral reflex are also seen to be significantly different from those of the ipsilateral reflex. An hypothesis to account for the experimental observations is proposed. It is propounded that chemical neurotransmitters, and their effect upon the contralateral reflex arc from the site of the superior olivary complex to the motoneurones innervating the stapedius, account for the difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral reflex thresholds and dynamic characteristics. In the past two years the measurement technique used for the experimental work has developed from an audiological to a neurological diagnostic tool. This has enabled the results from the study to be applied in the field for valuable biomechanical and neurological explanations of the reflex response.

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N2 - It has been proposed that parkinsonian tremor is produced either by the activity of an intrinsic thalamic pacemaker or by the oscillation of an unstable long loop reflex arc. The former (central) hypothesis proposes that overactivity of neurons in the internal segment of the globus pallidus inhibits or hyperpolarizes thalamic neurons. When hyperpolarized, thalamic cells oscillate with bursting of the type associated with low threshold calcium spikes (low threshold spike-bursts). Low threshold spike-bursts can be identified by particular patterns of interspike intervals within the burst. The alternative (peripheral) hypothesis proposes that tremor results from oscillation of a reflex arc transmitting activity from muscle stretch receptors of thalamus, motor cortex, and back to the stretched muscle. When the gain of this reflex is increased, the arc may become unstable and oscillate. Oscillations produced by peripheral inputs may produce an acceleration-deceleration pattern within the burst which results in sinusoidal modulation of a spike train if bursting is periodic. We have assessed these two hypotheses by studying he pattern of interspike intervals occurring within bursts recorded in patients with parkinsonian tremor. The spike trains were analysed for 118 cells located in the ventral nuclear group including ventralis intermedius (thalamic cerebellar relay nucleus, n=48) and ventralis oralis posterior (thalamic pallidal relay nucleus, n=39) of patients with parkinsonian tremor. Two cells recorded in ventralis intermedius of a sleeping patient with chronic pain showed bursting activity similar to the low threshold spike-bursts recorded in sleeping animals, suggesting a common mechanism for low threshold spike-bursts across species. Forty-two-cells recorded in patients with parkinsonian tremor (ventralis intermedius, n=19, ventralis oralis posterior, n=12) were classified as tremor-related cells because their activity was characterized by both a concentration of power at tremor frequency and significant correlation with tremor. Eleven tremor-related cells, 10 located in ventralis intermedius or ventralis oralis posterior and most responding to sensory inputs, had an acceleration-deceleration pattern of intraburst firing. Only one cell, a tremor-related cell in ventralis intermedius, showed the pattern expected of presumed low threshold spike-bursts. Therefore, intraburst interspike interval patterns consistent with either the central or the peripheral hypothesis were recorded in the thalamus of patients with parkinsonian tremor. Twenty-one tremor-related cells (15 cells in ventralis intermedius or ventralis oralis posterior) had bursts with intraburst interspike intervals which were independent of position of the interspike interval within the burst. Therefore, the activity of the majority of cells wa not consistent with either hypothesis, suggesting that another oscillatory process may contribute to parkinsonian tremor.

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