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25/03/2013 · What wavelengths of light are most effective for photosynthesis

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Light-emitting diode - Wikipedia

Photosynthesis is responsive to certain wave lengths of light energy (see Fig. 7.3, 7.4 & 7.5, Pg. 110-111 in text). The visible spectrum, from Red to Violet light is effective in photosynthesis The most effective colors of light energy are in the Red and Blue/Violet range of the color spectrum. These are the wavelengths of light that are absorbed most strongly by plant pigments, particularly the PRIMARY (and dominant) pigment in photosynthesis, CHLOROPHYLL a.

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source


I predict that with a blue filter the photosynthetic rate will be the
highest as blue is a highly absorbent color it also has a short
wavelength so carries the most energy.

It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated

Green is reflected and blue and red are absorbed: What is the least effective color in driving photosynthesis?

As with other early life processes, the first photosynthetic process was different from today’s, but the important result – capturing sunlight to power biological processes – was the same. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a in a was used for capturing sunlight. Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor (for locating volcanic vents). But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.

Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons. Chlorophyll is called a and, as it sits in its “,” it only absorbs wavelengths of light that . The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so , and there are many similar variations among bacteria. Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit. That pathway of carrying the electron that got “excited” by the captured photon is called an . Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works.

Zetlight | Aquarium Article Digest

A certain colors of light such as red and blue colors of light absorbed by the plant are more effective in driving photosynthesis than other colors of light.

To trip the light fantastic, back in those days, members of that disenchanted ultra-elite faction gave a close friend a . However, the dark heart of that organization is as black as a moonless midnight in the mountains, and in my circles it is known that one deranged ultra-elite contingency plan is if Earth’s surface becomes uninhabitable. Sanity may prevail, but I will not idly hope for the best.

Although Enlightenment philosophers acknowledged their debt to Newton (the world’s most towering intellectual of his time and one of history’s greatest scientists and mathematicians), he saw nothing improper with the slave trade and in 1720. When machines began reproducing human labor, the abolition of slavery also began, as it made unskilled labor uneconomical. Slavery, particularly the genocidal forms inflicted by Europe, were viable only for situations in which little professional skill was needed. Slavery worked best in mine and plantation work that used illiterate and often-expendable people. What became the USA was unique in the European age of slavery, in that tobacco operations, unlike sugar plantations, had more seasonal labor demands. Moreover, the environment of southeast North America was conducive to long-lived and fertile slaves, so that they could reproduce. Consequently, what became the USA was a , with its large slave population largely bred, not captured. People born into slavery are easier to keep enslaved than those born free, but they had to be kept illiterate and at low skill levels, or else they might desire freedom and obtain it. Late in the American era of slavery, some slaves were taught to read, but generally only one book, which justified slavery: the Bible. All the way to , apologists for slavery used Biblical passages to justify it. Many also justified antebellum slavery with economic arguments, stating that people took better care of something they owned rather than something they rented.

21.07.2011 · Conclusion. Light in the violet-blue and red portions of the spectrum is most effective in driving photosynthesis
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You can sometimes tell if aquarium plants are photosynthesizing by observing the plants. When small bubbles form on the leaves of plants it is a sign that photosynthesis is occurring. This is commonly referred to as pearling.

This picture shows a foxtail with pearling under HO Planted Aquarium capable AAP SHO Lights

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For PROFESSIONAL GRADE planted aquarium liquid fertilizer products that are best suited to the "Estimative Index of Dosing".
Products designed for persons who want to have a more advanced planted aquarium without the hassles need for a degree in science to do so. Consider these products too:

These products work for both low light and high light planted aquariums, just different dosages.

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Another way to utilize NilocG Enhance Seachem Flourish Excel for bioavailable carbon (CO2) in a better, staggered way, rather than all at once, is a calibrated drip system.
In this experiment I was able to get 20 drops per minute. I measured 20 drops and this was equal to a ¼ tsp. So 4 minutes would equal 1 tsp. There are 6 tsp in one fluid ounce. So at this rate you will go through a ounce in 24 minutes. Add the correct dosage for your aquarium size then add the water (RO or DI water is best to mix with Flourish).

Example: For a 50 gallon planted aquarium you would add one capful (5 mL) of Flourish Excel (or 5 mL of NilocG Enhance). Then, depending upon how long you would like to stagger the drip would determine the amount of water. For this example I would suggest 20 oz. of water to mix for 8 hours of drip (24 minutes per ounce x 20 ounces water/Flourish Excel solution).
With larger containers, longer dosing times can be achieved.
However, even though Flourish Excel or Enhance can remain active for 24 hours, from my experience I would suggest 8 hours for best results (keeping in mind that CO2 is not utilized by plants after dark as they use oxygen instead during non-photosynthetic periods).

CdS cells are little light sensors

[This is not expected; 650 nm (red) and 475 nm (blue) should produce the fastest rates]

2) The wavelength 475 nm (blue) does not induce photosynthesis whatsoever when shone on discs of spinach leaves.

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