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(Yz); PQ, a pool of mobile plastoquinone molecules.

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Glossary of Terms: P - Physical Geography

The effects of growth temperature on isoprene emission vs. temperature response relationships also vary among the studies with responses ranging from improved thermal sensitivity () to minor changes or even reduced thermal sensitivity (). Given that the temperature response of isoprene emission is driven by both the temperature effects on isoprene synthase activity and its immediate substrate dimethylallyl diphosphate pool size (), gaining insight into such contrasting responses requires information of growth temperature effects on both partial controls of isoprene emission. As isoprene emission and photosynthetic carbon metabolism are strongly linked (), improved heat-resistance of leaves grown at higher temperature can result in maintenance of greater DMADP pools at higher temperature, thereby improving the isoprene emission at higher temperatures.

Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis - …


The list of the anomalies in the behavior of liquid water could be continued on and on. But we have to consider one more: Although water, chemically neutral, it is one of the best solvents known to man. Water has the capability to entrap other substances. In other words, it tends to cluster around every non-water particle, forming conglomerations or complexes, as they are called scientifically.
Water’s capacity to entrap substances results in its high mineral content. The amount of these dissolved minerals being carried by the water determines its hardness. One of the most common minerals in water is calcium carbonate, a substance that forms mountain ranges such as the Alps. When liquid water evaporated the dissolved minerals become over concentrated and must crystallize. This also happens when the temperature of the water increases, or when the solubility of the carbonates in the water decreases. The consequence is a sediment of those minerals on the walls of the container — in our case spas and pools.

These sediments of minerals that grown on the container walls are actually limestone, which is hard and difficult to remove. Very hard water can produce these hard sediments with bad consequences. Unfortunately, this process is a slow one and cannot be recognized immediately. Nevertheless, the effects of hard water are quite noticeable if left to build up over time. Today the water lines that the Romans had used for hundreds of years show accumulations of hard lime scale many inches thick, as in the beautiful Pont du Gard in southern France, for instance.
But it only takes a few years for hard lime scale to take its toll on water pipes and equipment. Such sediment layers in heaters hinder the transfer of heat.
For swimming pools, the removal of existing hard lime scale is usually accomplished by an acid wash, which interrupts the operation of the system. Furthermore, the acid can attack pool walls and open up leaks.
Most water supplied by water districts in the United States is well cared for, analyzed chemically and rendered clean enough for drinking. Most of it contains a good amount of calcium content. This is important for proper taste and a healthy mineral balance. However, it tends to create deposits of scale over the years if no preventative measures are taken.

BioCoach Activity Cell Respiration Introduction

After the plastiquinone pool the electron are transported to the cytochrome from BIOLOGY 2601 at UWO

As with the photosynthesis data, in this section, we first analyze the differences in growth treatments at the standard measurement temperature of 30 °C, and then focus on differences in the shape on temperature responses. On a leaf area basis, both the isoprene emission rate (I) and the pool size of the substrate for the isoprene synthase enzyme, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP, CDMADP), were greater in the control than in the high temperature treatment (, ). However, on a leaf dry mass basis, I and CDMADP values were similar among the growth temperature treatments (, ). Furthermore, the rate constant for isoprene synthase (k) was not significantly different between the growth temperature treatments (, ). The percentage of photosynthetic carbon used for isoprene emission was also not significantly different among the treatments at this measurement temperature (). Similarly to the quantum yield for photosynthesis, the quantum yield for isoprene emission for the incident light was greater in the control treatment ().

John C., wrote Aug 2012 - from CA, USA- My shower head and DVDs came 2 weeks ago and I've been using it. Love it. Water is definitely different and more lively. I just feel better after using it overall. I have some thoughts and experiences with the imploder for the month I've had it. Used it for drinking and my jacuzzi water. I have a 800 gallon jacuzzi 10 ft by 8ft so a decent size pool that will seat 12. The water supports more life energy, so much so that I was putting in the maximum amount of chemicals (bromine and chlorine) and the algae bloom would not die! This would indicated more dissolved oxygen in the water as well. The super imploder is not recommended for filling pools and spas or ponds because of the ease of algae growth. This is to be expected because your products are intended for plant growth and sustaining life. It definitely overcame the chemicals I put in to keep the water clear which is exciting because it seems the proper use of this product will overcome a polluted environment! Bathing and drinking in the water, even just soaking my feet produced a overall feeling of well being and clarity of thought. My head would ring quite loud and the world in general around me seemed sharper and more defined. I just feel more aware and alive. Very cool! It should be noted that all water at my house is treated through a whole house (waterboy) water filter and is already purified and softened through their proprietary technology which I believe is the healthiest and best out there available right now. So my water is purified through the Waterboy and then structured and energized by the super imploder. I also took the time to water my sago palms and basil plants and the plants simply loved it. One sago that was not doing as well as the others (brown and yellow areas and slower growth) perked up noticeably and is now a healthy vibrant green. My basil seems more fragrant and stronger tasting. it should be noted that no nutrients or chemical fertilizers have been added to my plants in over a year! I only watered maybe 6 times in two weeks at the most.

Cellular Respiration Animation - Sumanas, Inc.

Everybody says that an aquarium is a lot of work, so why should I get one

Effectively treated water looks sparkling clear, even if the water supply is murky. Some water experts claim they can recognize a specific silky appearance of magnetically treated water. This might be due to the multitude of microcrystals, which can reflect sunlight. The developing microcrystals, however are so small that they are visible only with high magnification.
In regards to smell, water that comes with a slight sulfur odor loses this smell after being treated with magnetic devices. Of significant interest to this industry, the chlorine odor of chlorinated water is greatly reduced by effective magnetic treatment. In fact, slight chlorination may become unnoticeable to the average user.
For aromatic brews such as teas or coffees, the desired aromas can be achieved with fewer ingredients if the water is effectively treated. The ensuing aromas appear cleaner to perceptive noses. It is said that in some eastern countries — China for instance — many people heat their tea water in a pot containing a magnet.
One of the most obvious effects of magnetic water treatment is the enhanced ability of most cleaning chemicals and detergents. Magnetically treated water increases their effectiveness to the point where just one-third or even one-fourth of the cleaning agent is needed. In the cases of naturally contaminated water from lakes, an intense magnetic treatment has made the lake water fit for human consumption.
Magnetically treated water runs off a cleaned surface faster and in thinner sheets because surface tension is reduced. As a result one sees fewer water spots from drying. This has been applied successfully for the watering of decorative plants by sprinklers.
Surface tension in water is critical to biological life. Surface tension makes water rise in the fibers of the plants. It fills the capillaries in your body and it determines water’s ability to penetrate soil and other materials. Therefore it is not surprising that wherever magnetic water treatment has been practiced, growth patterns have changed. Experiments with groups of growing farm animals and agricultural plants have been conducted at universities and federal institutions with stunning results. Some were hard to believe, so the scientists were reluctant to publish them immediately, pending confirmation.
Following are some of the results of scientific research:
At a California university, two control groups of piglets of 24 piglets each with normal feeding were compared with two groups of 24 piglets that were getting their water from a magnetic treatment device. The latter groups consumed twice as much water and grew an average 12.5 percent faster.
Cotton plantings with various irrigation were compared in California. The cotton plants irrigated with magnetically treated water grew to larger sizes with larger and denser foliage. However, they produced one-third less cotton than the control plantings.
A Washington navel orange tree watered with the magnetically treated water carried less fruit, but each orange became unusually thick and juicy, weighing 20 ounces on average. Similarly, a Eureka lemon tree fed magnetically treated water carries lemons that grow up to one pound each.
One biologist suggests that the slightly reduced surface tension of the magnetically treated water may facilitate its penetration of cell walls. This could accelerate the normal dividing of the cells in growing parts of living individuals. This would account for the faster vegetative growth and the reduced reproductive cell division responsible for the number of flowers and fruit.
The accelerated growth of plants by the use of magnetically treated water is possible because the root tips secrete enzymes that dissolve crystals in the ground, enabling the roots to ingest the dissolved minerals. This is not the case for one-cell organisms that pollute pool water. Algae and bacteria have
to ingest their food directly through their cell wall. They get plenty of water through it, but they cannot receive any nourishment in the form of crystallized minerals, which cannot penetrate the cell walls. Thus, bacteria in magnetically treated water starve.
Observations on swimming pools confirm this effect. The normal chlorine content of treated of swimming pools can be reduced by at least half if the water is efficiently magnetically treated. Even without any chlorination , no algae growth can be detected for about 36 hours. This is the normal duration of the affectivity of the magnetic treatment. After one to two days, the microcrystals formed by the treatment start to redissolve. After this time, a vigorous growth of algae occurs in the non-chlorinated pool if it is not replenished with treated water.
In short a swimming pool benefits by the application of magnetic water treatment for a number of reasons: ...


Fortunately, a well designed magnetic treatment device will prevent such deposits from developing, as long as it is sized for the maximum water flow capability of the particular plumbing system. Safety inspections may be required, but in most cases inspection reveals nothing more than and accumulation of sludge, which can be removed easily.
Recently, a pool builder inspected my 30 -year-old pool, which has been fitted with simple magnetic water treatment device that is clamped on one of the lines between the pump and the filter. He was astonished to feel not a trace of roughness on the waterline tiles, and he could hardly believe that we did nothing to clean the tiles since last summer.
During the resurfacing of my driveway, a small bulldozer happened to rip one of the feed lines for the lawn sprinklers out of the ground. A young plumber replaced the old galvanized iron piping with new PVC tubing. The next day he returned and asked my permission to saw off a little piece of the old pipe. The reason: He wanted to show his father, a long time plumber, that it was possible for the outside of a water pipe to accumulate a thick crust of rust deposits while the inside of the 30-year-old pipe was without any substantial deposits.
But how could the old water tubes of my sprinkler systems be free of the interior deposits? After all, these tubes had been in the ground for 18 years before I had magnetic water treatment device attached to the house’s water supply line. At that time lumpy hard deposits of reddish brown stones had already reduced the inner diameter of the 1-inch piping to less than 3/4 inch.
The removal of these hard deposits was rather dramatic. On Feb. 28 1982, when the magnetic device was installed on my house, I had opened all the faucets, toilet flushers, drains and garden hose outlets. Soon I found it necessary to remove all faucet strainer heads because the brown water emerging carried lumps of brown matter with it. It took about 4 hours until the emerging water had become colorless and ran steadily.
This event can be explained using the same facts about crystallization in water that were detailed in part one of this column. The only difference between magnetically treated water and untreated water is that magnetically treated water enables minerals to crystallize in the water instead of on the surface of some pipe or container. As a result we have converted the water formerly saturated with dissolved minerals into a mixture of solid microcrystals and clean water. When this purified water flows past other minerals it is capable of dissolving a new load of minerals.

Glossary of Terms: G - Physical Geography
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