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Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 pyrimidine …

02/04/2010 · Plasmodium purine and pyrimidine metabolic pathways are distinct ..

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Pyrimidine metabolism (biosynthesis) | LAMP

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) is a key enzyme in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and the major source of electrons for the mitochondrial electron transport chain of intraerythrocytic malaria parasites. DHOD and the electron transport chain may also be the site of inhibition by certain antimalarial drugs. In order to test this, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to artemisinin or various 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, WR 238605, WR 225448, and WR 255956, and then assayed for both enzyme activity and [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, which is an indicator of viability. Atovaquone inhibits DHOD activity to a much greater extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, which is consistent with previous reports that it targets the parasite respiratory chain. However, artemisinin and the 8-aminoquinolines inhibit DHOD to the same or lesser extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, suggesting that these compounds have different modes of action.

PRIME PubMed | Inhibition of pyrimidine biosynthesis …

N2 - Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) is a key enzyme in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and the major source of electrons for the mitochondrial electron transport chain of intraerythrocytic malaria parasites. DHOD and the electron transport chain may also be the site of inhibition by certain antimalarial drugs. In order to test this, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to artemisinin or various 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, WR 238605, WR 225448, and WR 255956, and then assayed for both enzyme activity and [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, which is an indicator of viability. Atovaquone inhibits DHOD activity to a much greater extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, which is consistent with previous reports that it targets the parasite respiratory chain. However, artemisinin and the 8-aminoquinolines inhibit DHOD to the same or lesser extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, suggesting that these compounds have different modes of action.

in the pyrimidine biosynthesis …

N2 - Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (pfDHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that provides the only route to pyrimidine biosynthesis in the parasite. Clinically significant inhibitors of human DHODH (e.g., A77 1726) bind to a pocket on the opposite face of the flavin cofactor from dihydroorotate (DHO). This pocket demonstrates considerable sequence variability, which has allowed species-specific inhibitors of the malarial enzyme to be identified. Ubiquinone (CoQ), the physiological oxidant in the reaction, has been postulated to bind this site despite a lack of structural evidence. To more clearly define the residues involved in CoQ binding and catalysis, we undertook site-directed mutagenesis of seven residues in the structurally defined A77 1726 binding site, which we term the species-selective inhibitor site. Mutation of several of these residues (H185, F188, and F227) to Ala substantially decreased the affinity of pfDHODH-specific inhibitors (40-240-fold). In contrast, only a modest increase in the Km app for CoQ was observed, although mutation of Y528 in particular caused a substantial reduction in kcat (40-100-fold decrease). Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis by single wavelength stopped-flow spectroscopy showed that the mutations had no effect on the rate of the DHO-dependent reductive half-reaction, but most reduced the rate of the CoQ-dependent flavin oxidation step (3-20-fold decrease), while not significantly altering the K dox for CoQ. As with the mutants, inhibitors that bind this site block the CoQ-dependent oxidative half-reaction without affecting the DHO-dependent step. These results identify residues involved in inhibitor binding and electron transfer to CoQ. Importantly, the data provide compelling evidence that the binding sites for CoQ and species-selective site inhibitors do not overlap, and they suggest instead that inhibitors act either by blocking the electron path between flavin and CoQ or by stabilizing a conformation that excludes CoQ binding.

AB - Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) is a key enzyme in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and the major source of electrons for the mitochondrial electron transport chain of intraerythrocytic malaria parasites. DHOD and the electron transport chain may also be the site of inhibition by certain antimalarial drugs. In order to test this, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes were exposed in vitro to artemisinin or various 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, WR 238605, WR 225448, and WR 255956, and then assayed for both enzyme activity and [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, which is an indicator of viability. Atovaquone inhibits DHOD activity to a much greater extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, which is consistent with previous reports that it targets the parasite respiratory chain. However, artemisinin and the 8-aminoquinolines inhibit DHOD to the same or lesser extent than hypoxanthine incorporation, suggesting that these compounds have different modes of action.

795 for biosynthetic origins of pyrimidine ring atoms

AB - Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (pfDHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that provides the only route to pyrimidine biosynthesis in the parasite. Clinically significant inhibitors of human DHODH (e.g., A77 1726) bind to a pocket on the opposite face of the flavin cofactor from dihydroorotate (DHO). This pocket demonstrates considerable sequence variability, which has allowed species-specific inhibitors of the malarial enzyme to be identified. Ubiquinone (CoQ), the physiological oxidant in the reaction, has been postulated to bind this site despite a lack of structural evidence. To more clearly define the residues involved in CoQ binding and catalysis, we undertook site-directed mutagenesis of seven residues in the structurally defined A77 1726 binding site, which we term the species-selective inhibitor site. Mutation of several of these residues (H185, F188, and F227) to Ala substantially decreased the affinity of pfDHODH-specific inhibitors (40-240-fold). In contrast, only a modest increase in the Km app for CoQ was observed, although mutation of Y528 in particular caused a substantial reduction in kcat (40-100-fold decrease). Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis by single wavelength stopped-flow spectroscopy showed that the mutations had no effect on the rate of the DHO-dependent reductive half-reaction, but most reduced the rate of the CoQ-dependent flavin oxidation step (3-20-fold decrease), while not significantly altering the K dox for CoQ. As with the mutants, inhibitors that bind this site block the CoQ-dependent oxidative half-reaction without affecting the DHO-dependent step. These results identify residues involved in inhibitor binding and electron transfer to CoQ. Importantly, the data provide compelling evidence that the binding sites for CoQ and species-selective site inhibitors do not overlap, and they suggest instead that inhibitors act either by blocking the electron path between flavin and CoQ or by stabilizing a conformation that excludes CoQ binding.

The apicomplexans and can synthesise pyrimidine de novo from aspartate and glutamine. The Cryptosporidium species cannot synthesise pyrimidines de novo and salvages it from host. T. gondii also possess the salvage mechanisms in addition to de novo synthesis, whereas P. falciparum does not possess salvaging ability. The Piroplasma species possess the capability to synthesise pyrimidines de novo and cannot salvage pyrimidines from host. This suggests that they are similar to Plasmodium species when compared to the Coccidia. The presence of five of six enzymes of UMP biosynthesis pathway was shown to be conclusively present in Babesia rodhaini from the measurement of their specific activities []. The activities of all the six enzymes had been demonstrated in Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina by Gero et al. The specific activities of the Babesia enzymes were of the same order of magnitude to the enzymes of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei [].

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Chapter 53 - Environmental Health Hazards

Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (pfDHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme that provides the only route to pyrimidine biosynthesis in the parasite. Clinically significant inhibitors of human DHODH (e.g., A77 1726) bind to a pocket on the opposite face of the flavin cofactor from dihydroorotate (DHO). This pocket demonstrates considerable sequence variability, which has allowed species-specific inhibitors of the malarial enzyme to be identified. Ubiquinone (CoQ), the physiological oxidant in the reaction, has been postulated to bind this site despite a lack of structural evidence. To more clearly define the residues involved in CoQ binding and catalysis, we undertook site-directed mutagenesis of seven residues in the structurally defined A77 1726 binding site, which we term the species-selective inhibitor site. Mutation of several of these residues (H185, F188, and F227) to Ala substantially decreased the affinity of pfDHODH-specific inhibitors (40-240-fold). In contrast, only a modest increase in the Km app for CoQ was observed, although mutation of Y528 in particular caused a substantial reduction in kcat (40-100-fold decrease). Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis by single wavelength stopped-flow spectroscopy showed that the mutations had no effect on the rate of the DHO-dependent reductive half-reaction, but most reduced the rate of the CoQ-dependent flavin oxidation step (3-20-fold decrease), while not significantly altering the K dox for CoQ. As with the mutants, inhibitors that bind this site block the CoQ-dependent oxidative half-reaction without affecting the DHO-dependent step. These results identify residues involved in inhibitor binding and electron transfer to CoQ. Importantly, the data provide compelling evidence that the binding sites for CoQ and species-selective site inhibitors do not overlap, and they suggest instead that inhibitors act either by blocking the electron path between flavin and CoQ or by stabilizing a conformation that excludes CoQ binding.

Annalee Yassi and Tord Kjellström

The genes for these six enzymes of de novo biosynthesis are present in the genomes of both Theileria species and B. bovis. The enzyme CTP synthase is present in all apicomplexans including Piroplasma species and is the only enzyme involved in the conversion of uridine to cytidine nucleotides. In addition to these, the enzyme cytidine/dCTP deaminase, an enzyme involved in deamination of dCTP to dUTP is present in Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Piroplasma species. Other salvage enzymes present in T. gondii and absent in P. falciparum such as dCMP deaminase, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) and pyrimidine (uridine) phosphorylase are absent in these species.

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