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photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions - Proteins

Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis

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Antibodies to proteins involved in photosynthesis

The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll. With increasing nitrogen per unit leaf area, the proportion of total leaf nitrogen in the thylakoids remains the same while the proportion in soluble protein increases. In many species, growth under lower irradiance greatly increases the partitioning of nitrogen into chlorophyll and the thylakoids, while the electron transport capacity per unit of chlorophyll declines. If growth irradiance influences the relationship between photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen content, predicting nitrogen distribution between leaves in a canopy becomes more complicated. When both photosynthetic capacity and leaf nitrogen content are expressed on the basis of leaf area, considerable variation in the photosynthetic capacity for a given leaf nitrogen content is found between species. The variation reflects different strategies of nitrogen partitioning, the electron transport capacity per unit of chlorophyll and the specific activity of RuBP carboxylase. Survival in certain environments clearly does not require maximising photosynthetic capacity for a given leaf nitrogen content. Species that flourish in the shade partition relatively more nitrogen into the thylakoids, although this is associated with lower photosynthetic capacity per unit of nitrogen.

Rubisco Like Proteins | Photosynthesis | Evolution

Glycerate 3-phosphate is reduced during the reduction reactions to a three-carbon sugar called triose phosphate. Energy and hydrogen is needed for the reduction and these are supplied by ATP and NADPH + H+ (both produced during light-dependent reactions) respectively. Two triose phosphate molecules can then react together to form glucose phosphate. The condensation of many molecules of glucose phosphate forms starch which is the form of carbohydrate stored in plants. However, out of six triose phosphates produced during the reduction reactions, only one will be used to synthesise glucose phosphate. The five remaining triose phosphates will be used to regenerate RuBP.

Chapter 3: Proteins, Photosynthesis and Fiber …

Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis

The light reactions absorb light and harness the energy to powder electron transfers. Most photosynthetic organisms capture visible light, although there are some that use infrared light.

Photosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment found inside the thylakoid membranes. These chlorophyll molecules are arranged in groups called photosystems. There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem II and Photosystem I. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light, the energy from this light raises an electron within the chlorophyll molecule to a higher energy state. The chlorophyll molecule is then said to be photoactivated. Excited electron anywhere within the photosystem are then passed on from one chlorophyll molecule to the next until they reach a special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of the photosystem. This special chlorophyll molecule then passes on the excited electron to a chain of electron carriers.

Do membrane proteins play a role in photosynthesis? | …

Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes

The light-dependent reactions starts within Photosystem II. When the excited electron reaches the special chlorophyll molecule at the reaction centre of Photosystem II it is passed on to the chain of electron carriers. This chain of electron carriers is found within the thylakoid membrane. As this excited electron passes from one carrier to the next it releases energy. This energy is used to pump protons (hydrogen ions) across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoids. This forms a proton gradient. The protons can travel back across the membrane, down the concentration gradient, however to do so they must pass through ATP synthase. ATP synthase is located in the thylakoid membrane and it uses the energy released from the movement of protons down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The synthesis of ATP in this manner is called non-cyclic photophosphorylation (uses the energy of excited electrons from photosystem II) .

In a plant, the carbon dioxide enters via leaf stomates . Water is absorbed through the roots and is transported to leaves through the xylem. Solar energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves. The reactions of occur in the chloroplasts of plants. In photosynthetic bacteria, the process takes place where chlorophyll or a related pigment is embedded in the plasma membrane. The oxygen and water produced in photosynthesis exit through the stomata.

IB Biology Notes - 7.5 Proteins
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Enzymes and protein complexes needed in photosynthesis

The quantum wizardry appears to occur in each of a photosynthetic cell's millions of antenna proteins. These route energy from electrons spinning in photon-sensitive molecules to nearby reaction-center proteins, which convert it to cell-driving charges.

Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis. Crime Video

So how can these factors have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis? Lets start off with the light intensity. When the light intensity is poor, there is a shortage of ATP and NADPH, as these are products from the light dependent reactions. Without these products the light independent reactions can't occur as glycerate 3-phosphate cannot be reduced. Therefore a shortage of these products will limit the rate of photosynthesis. When the carbon dioxide concentration is low, the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate produced is limited as carbon dioxide is needed for its production and therefore the rate of photosynthesis is affected. Finally, many enzymes are involved during the process of photosynthesis. At low temperatures these enzymes work slower. At high temperatures the enzymes no longer work effectively. This affects the rate of the reactions in the Calvin cycle and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be affected.

Photosynthesis Electron Transport Chain Diagram Nail Lifestyle

The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.

Electron Transport Chain Photosynthesis Simple

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

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