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A Diabetes Simulation Encounter to Evaluate Satisfaction with Standardized Patients and Assess Clinical Skills of IPPE Students. Erica J. Ottis, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Frank Caligiuri, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Deepti Vyas, California Northstate College of Pharmacy. Objectives: With the Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education allowing simulation to account for 20% of Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) hours, student perceptions of simulation within IPPE should be explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate student attitudes and satisfaction with a focused diabetes simulation in a clinical IPPE. Method: Students participated in a 30 minute simulated clinic visit at a university simulation center. Prior to the simulation, students were provided with a patient case that included the chief complaint and relevant laboratory data. On simulation day, students were instructed to obtain a medication history, a health history, and perform a targeted physical exam on a standardized patient (SP) relevant to diabetes and hypertension. Students were then asked to write a SOAP note to document the encounter and identify any drug related problems. Faculty observed via real-time video feed and provided summative feedback to each student. Following the simulation, an attitudes survey was administered. This survey addressed items such as the impact of simulation on their physical assessment skills, making therapeutic interventions based on the physical exam and medication history findings, and on providing patient education regarding preventative strategies and disease management. A satisfaction survey was also administered which provided qualitative data for course improvement. Results: 26 students completed the post-simulation surveys. Data are currently being analyzed and will be reported using descriptive statistics. Implications: The data will be used to determine student attitudes regarding simulation and to what degree to incorporate simulation into IPPEs in the future.
Simulating an APPE during a Capstone Course to Prepare Students for Rotations and Facilitate Self-Reflection. Mark A. Della Paolera, Pacific University Oregon, David G. Fuentes, Roosevelt University, Lindsay Christensen, Pacific University Oregon, Jennifer M. Jordan, Pacific University Oregon, Ty Vo, Pacific University Oregon. Objectives: To provide students with a simulated APPE experience to practice various clinical skill sets, facilitate students' self-assessment, identify their strengths and weaknesses; familiarize them with APPE grading rubrics; and, provide formative and summative feedback. Method: A Capstone Course was developed and 93 students were assigned to teams and a faculty member, assuming the role of “faculty preceptor.” Students performed activities in drug information, hospital rounds, and medication therapy management. Skills were assessed surrounding patient interviews, presentations, and written documentation. Results: Ninety-two percent (n = 86) successfully completed the course without remediation. Most students reported this course improved their self-confidence, allowed them to practice various skill sets, and helped them identify strengths and weaknesses. Implications: Students starting their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs) may benefit from receiving individualized feedback from faculty mentors in the didactic setting to prime them for the challenges and expectations of their clinical training during the third year. A similar Capstone Course may be implemented in others schools and colleges of pharmacy as an APPE preparatory activity.
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Examination of Learning Strategies in a Pharmacology Course for Nursing Students. Teresa M. Seefeldt, South Dakota State University, Joe Strain, South Dakota State University, Karly A. Hegge, South Dakota State University, Kaitlyn Baier, South Dakota State University. Objectives: Pharmacology for nursing students may be taught by pharmacy faculty; the method of course delivery varies by program. The major objective of this study was to evaluate learning of nursing students enrolled in a pharmacology course. Specifically, the perceptions of nursing students regarding pharmacology education and learning methods used in the different modes of course delivery were examined. Method: A survey was developed and administered to nursing students taking pharmacology in traditional face-to-face and online sections taught by College of Pharmacy faculty. The students were asked about their perceptions of pharmacology courses, how the mode of delivery impacted learning, and the specific learning strategies or tools that students were using to learn pharmacology. Results: The survey was administered over three semesters and will be given again in Spring 2011. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the students in both sections found frequent quizzes and ungraded self-assessment activities to be the most helpful in learning pharmacology. In addition, the students in the online section appreciated the availability of recorded lectures. More of the online students felt that the mode of delivery had a negative impact or no impact on their learning while most of the face-to-face students described a positive impact on learning from the delivery method. Implications: The results of this project will provide valuable information for faculty teaching nursing pharmacology courses to use in course design and decisions on delivery methods.
Validation of a Tool to Assess Student Simulation Performance in a Clostridium Difficile Scenario. Jennifer D. Robinson, Washington State University, Brenda S. Bray, Washington State University, Megan N. Willson, Washington State University, Catrina Schwartz, Washington State University, Douglas L. Weeks, Washington State University. Objectives: To validate a tool used to assess pharmacy student performance in a simulation based exercise focused on a Clostridium difficile infection in an inpatient hospital setting. This study specifically focused on the content validity and inter-rater reliability of a peer-reviewed evaluation rubric. Method: An education module was created to expose second year student pharmacists to a contagious infectious disease patient case. The student pharmacists were required to use patient assessment techniques to determine the severity of the infection and evaluate current treatment while following infection control precautions and isolation procedures. A content validity process that depended on experts in infectious disease, simulation evaluation, and instrument development was followed to assure critical content was represented on the tool. The final tool was used to evaluate the performance of each student group. Each simulation session was video recorded. Four raters independently assessed student performance; scores from these four raters were used to establish inter-rater reliability of the tool. Results: The content validity process resulted in a tool with 6 categories that evaluated content in both the cognitive and psychomotor domains. Implications of inter-rater reliability analyses will be discussed in terms of items essential to maintain overall item reliability. Implications: The measurement of student performance and learning while utilizing human patient simulation using a validated evidence based rubric is currently limited. We hope this project result in a tool that can be used for infectious disease human patient simulation scenarios, and that it is adaptable to other patient care scenarios.
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The University of South Florida College of Pharmacy Curricular Model - Innovative, Integrative, and Interprofessional. Erini S. Serag, University of South Florida, Marianne E. Koenig, University of South Florida, Amy H. Schwartz, University of South Florida, Heather M.W. Petrelli, University of South Florida, Yashwant V. Pathak, University of South Florida, Kevin B. Sneed, University of South Florida. Approval for the USF COP occured after a needs assessment identified tremendous population growth within Tampa Bay, especially amongst “baby boomers.” The USF COP is the only comprehensive public COP within a Florida metropolitan area. The COP resides within USF Health, which encompasses the Colleges of Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health. USF Health embraced the COP, as the discipline fosters further alignment with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations for promoting an interprofessional academic healthcare environment. The COP mission, vision, and goals are supported by four academic pillars: geriatrics, informatics, leadership, and pharmacogenetics. Each pillar is manifested through an integrated curriculum utilizing faculty from the COP and other USF Health programs. The COP curricular plan supports academic collaboration and evaluation. The COP curriculum includes interdisciplinary and interprofessional components in order to maximize practical relevance and applicability. Syllabi development has been a collaborative effort, with regular meetings to discuss topic, assignment, and evaluation alignment. The Pharmaceutical Skills sequence allows for the continuous reinforcement and application of core professional competencies. Some of the interprofessional workshops within this sequence will occur within the innovative Center for Advanced Medical Learning and Simulation (CAMLS). Longitudinal Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences further support skill mastery and interprofessional engagement. A two year faculty development program is under development with the USF Health Center for Transformation and Innovation. The FDP will also utilize an interprofessional approach, with faculty being formally assigned mentors from across the USF campus. The FDP curriculum will be tailored to faculty needs.
Service First - Integrating Basic and Clinical Sciences at Harding University College of Pharmacy (HUCOP). Daniel H. Atchley, Harding University, Forrest L. Smith, Harding University, Jeanie M. Smith, Harding University, Rami A. Beiram, Harding University, Ankita A. Desai, Harding University, Jeffrey B. Mercer, Harding University, Timothy E. Howard, Harding University, Julie A. Hixson-Wallace, Harding University. Objective: Pharmacy students integrate basic and clinical sciences education at a local charitable clinic alongside student nurses and other allied health professionals. Methods: HUCOP requires students to complete 32 pharmacy service learning hours annually, with at least two experiences in a charitable clinic setting. Christian Health Ministry (CHM), a local all-volunteer charitable clinic, is a coveted location for completing these hours. In addition to working in the pharmacy, students rotate through the clinical laboratory where they are encouraged to connect basic sciences knowledge with clinical science experience. Students perform CLIA-waived tests, including glucose, urinalysis, Beta-HCG, fecal occult blood, PT/INR, urine micro-albumin, and HgbA1c. During this process, laboratory professionals help guide students through the rationale for tests ordered and the pathologies they detect. Lastly, students are encouraged to explore interprofessional ways to improve patient care in the form of joint projects with student nurses. Results: 60/179 (33.5%) HUCOP students have rotated through the CHM laboratory. As a result, one HUCOP student spearheaded an interprofessional diabetes research project yielding data suggesting 59% of patients with type-2 diabetes are not improving their Hgb-A1c results. The data were used to support implementation of a diabetes fitness and nutrition class. Another HUCOP student has been instrumental in establishing protocols and QC/maintenance for the CLIA-waived tests used in the laboratory. Implications: The clinical laboratory experience enables students to integrate their basic and clinical sciences education. This improves their knowledge base and, more importantly, helps improve patient outcomes and the quality of service rendered.
Read 13 publications and contact Zachary F Walls on ResearchGate, ..
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Synthesis of ultrasmall ultrabright photostable yellow luminescent Si nanoparticles.
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Student Documentation of Professional Activities Across the Curriculum. Mary J. Starry, The University of Iowa, Jay D. Currie, The University of Iowa, James D. Hoehns, The University of Iowa, Sandra J. Johnson, The University of Iowa, Lisa DuBrava, The University of Iowa, Hazel H. Seaba, The University of Iowa. Objectives: Documentation by pharmacy students of their professional activities is key both for assessment of the range and diversity of activities available and for students to demonstrate responsibility for reporting those activities. This poster will explain a documentation system (PxDx™, E*Value®), describe how expectations for documentation are advanced from the first to fourth year, and characterize the type and quantity of data obtained. Method: Students are introduced to the documentation system when they start leadership, simulated, and real patient care experiences during their first year(P1). Once second year students (P2) have the knowledge to address drug therapy problems, disease states and medication therapy, these are integrated into the documentation. By the third year(P3), students are expected to demonstrate responsibility for documenting all professional activities from laboratory and introductory pharmacy practice experiences. The fourth year(P4) moves to documentation of real patient interventions. The types of activities encountered and documented during this progression will be quantified and described. Results: Complete 2010-2011 data will be reported. Encounter totals through the first nine months of the 2010-2011 year: 862 documented by P1 students, 2567 by P2s, 2697 by P3s and 9275 by P4s. Implications: Utilization of this system results in students able to document professional activities while providing data for assessing the range and diversity of student professional experiences across the curriculum.
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