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Gene Expressionand Protein Synthesis

Messenger RNA(mRNA), which carries the genetic information from DNA and is used as a template for protein synthesis.

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Glen Research is delighted to introduce a GalNAc modification strategy using a monomeric GalNAc support and the equivalent GalNAc phosphoramidite. Our experimental work has shown that these products are fully compatible with regular oligonucleotide synthesis and deprotection. Oligonucleotides containing GalNAc can be deprotected using standard procedures during which the acetyl protecting groups on the GalNAc group are removed. Glen Research offers these GalNAc C3 products under an agreement with AM Chemicals LLC.

Antisense RNA blocks gene expression.

The sequence of mRNA is transcribed from DNA, which carries information from the synthesis of protein. In mRNA, three consecutive nucleotides encode either a stop signal for protein synthesis or an amino acid. The trinucleotide is called a ‘codon.’

At a stop codon, protein synthesis ceases.

Messenger RNA codes on the antisense strand.

i.ρ-dependent Termination: In some prokaryotes, the termination of transcription is helped by a ρ (rho) protein that gets attached at the 5′ end of the newly synthesizing mRNA. The ρ then moves along the mRNA and induces the formation of hairpin loop near the 3′ end of mRNA due to the presence of inverted repeated sequences. This helps in the detachment of mRNA from the DNA (Fig. 8.9).

The properties of tRNA are listed below:

"Understand the processes of transcription in the nucleus and translation at the ribosome, including the role of sense and anti-sense DNA, mRNA, tRNA and the ribosomes."

"Understand the term gene mutation as illustrated by base deletions, insertions and substitutions."

Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis.

This means that when the molecule is translated at the ribosomes, the new strand will become sense.

Functional changes that may be caused by SNPs are genetranscription changes (promoter and intronic enhancer SNPs), truncated protein(nonsense coding region SNPs), structural changes (coding region SNPs),alternative splicing (intronic splice site SNPs), and mRNA stability changes(3’UTR SNPs).

The way these subunits fit together is very specific to each type of protein, and is vital to its function.
Primary Structure
- The first stage of protein synthesis is the assembly of a sequence of amino acids, linked by peptide bonds formed by condensation reactions.

many ribosomes work on protein synthesis from the same strand of mRNA at the same time.
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  • It facilitatesribosomal binding and therefore, protein synthesis.

    The genetic code includes the codons within DNA and RNA, composed of bases which code for protein synthesis.

  • it is complementary to the antisense DNA strand

    Intracellular delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide via endocytosis of a G protein-coupled receptor

  • DNA replication and protein synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

    Tolerance of RNA Interference Toward Modifications of the 5' Antisense Phosphate of Small Interfering RNA

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DNA and Protein Synthesis Review the ..

The authors note that the detailed studies of the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair pathways were made possible by using site-specifically modified oligonucleotides and that the availability of phosphoramidites to synthesize oligonucleotides with DNA lesions has contributed to the field. They illustrate the article using primarily structural studies in the following examples:

protein synthesis biology 10 3 Study Sets and …

This produces a
primary mRNA
molecule which has the same base sequence as the sense strand of DNA (except that it contains the base U in place of T).
- RNA polymerase moves along the antisense DNA strand in a 3’-5’ direction, for the mRNA’s construction to proceed in a 5’-3’ direction.


Messenger RNA sequencing is necessary in the synthesis of protein, which is necessary for humans to live. Without the proteins being synthesized, normal functions such as breathing and energy expenditure would not be possible, as cells would be denied a vital source of energy.


Another paper3 describes a method for the inactivation of micro RNA (miRNA) that may help to elucidate their functions. It uses 2’-OMe-RNA oligonucleotides (23-mers, complementary to a target miRNA) with a cholesteryl group at the 3´terminus and phosphorothioates at positions 1 and 2 at the 5´end and at the last four positions at the 3´end. These oligos are called antagomirs. These molecules promote the cleavage of complementary miRNAs and thus should allow analysis of their function. The role of the PS linkages presumably is the stabilization against degradation in the mouse experiments as it is standard in the antisense field in such in vivo situations. And finally, a recent paper4 shows that PS does not systematically abolish siRNA activity, opening the way for some potentially less expensive stabilization of such molecules. Incorporation of 2’-OMe (in the sense strand) in combination with PS linkages should confer to siRNA increased resistance to degradation by nucleases, as well as prolonged serum retention. And it is also possible that such easy modification of siRNA may increase the specificity by eliminating sense strand recruitment in the RISC complex and thus reducing a source of off-target effect.

is known as non-coding strand (antisense strand) ..

Here, RNA polymerase releases the mRNA and finishes rewinding the DNA before breaking free.

Protein Synthesis and Structure
mRNA synthesis by RNA polyerase
Post-transcriptional modification
In eukaryotes, many genes contain sequences of DNA that are transcribed but not translated.

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