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Criticism inoculation training: concept in search of strategy.

Author Ante began with an example, the satellite-radio war, to show how ethnography worked in business.

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The suggestion received strong criticism …

The suggestion received strong criticism from economists mainly driven by the idea that if opportunities for higher competitiveness exist firms do not have to be triggered by an extra cost.

: Renaissance, Drama & Performance, History of the Book, Gender Studies, Comparative Literature

Moreover, do we not encounter some of the same issues that are involved in the term "original text," when we analyze the phrase in the Alands' previously cited quotation that refers to "the state of the New Testament text from the moment it began its literary history [or existence] through transcription [or copies] for distribution"? When does a writing's literary existence begin? Can the beginning of a writing's literary history be limited to the moment when copies were made and circulated (that is, the time of its "publication")? And if earlier composition levels can be detected, especially when signaled by textual variants, have textual critics not uncovered an earlier "beginning" of that writing's literary history? Or, to move forward in time, could not a literary process (such as revision or rearrangement of the text) have taken place after the first copies were made and released, thereby turning the earlier, copied version itself into a predecessor literary layer of the writing? Hence, the term "beginning" begins to take on multiple dimensions, just as "original" does, and textual critics face the possibility that the text of a writing that has been transmitted, which they presume to have stood at the beginning of that particular writing's history, now can be shown (triggered by textual variants) to have evolved from an earlier "beginning" -- an "original" has had earlier "originals."

Interaction Hypothesis Criticism | Second Language | …

There is no specific way to explain exactly what literature means and is to each individual person....

As a result of this conclusion, textual criticism as a discipline is not automatically and necessarily concerned with authority. For example, difficult though it may be, if one can establish a text or reading to be "as close as possible" to an autographic text-form that appears unaffected by predecessor or successor text-forms, does that text-critical decision in fact create an authoritative text or reading? -- "authoritative" in the sense of theologically normative? My answer is clearly negative; rather, it means only that a scholarly decision has been reached that affirms a given text or reading to be "as close as possible" to an apparently un-preformulated and un-reformulated text-form. The text-critical discipline per se carries with it no normative implications and imposes no theological overlay onto such a text or variant. As I have emphasized earlier,[107] some (perhaps many) textual critics may be seeking an authoritative "original" New Testament text and may choose to identify it with an authoritative "canon," but such a goal is neither intrinsic to textual criticism as a historical-critical discipline, nor is it within the domain of textual criticism to place a theological overlay on either its purposes or its results. In the same breath, however, I wish also to emphasize that every textual critic has full freedom to perform his or her text-critical work within any chosen theological framework, but that choice constitutes a fully separate, voluntary, additional step and one not intrinsic to or demanded by the discipline.[108]

That is, anything self-monitored that negatively affects reaching the specific behavioral goal (over self critical, easily frustrated, etc.) is negated by positive self-consequating techniques.

Essay on Criticisms of Porter s Diamond - 1944 Words

There are a number of approaches that can be used as forms of carrying out literally criticism; one of them is the use of archetypal approach.

First, in what sense were or are competing variant readings "canonical" (for example, in the marriage and divorce sayings), or to what extent were or are variants "canonical" that textual critics now reject but that were once authoritative scripture in the fourth or fifth centuries, or even the seventeenth century (for example, additional endings of Mark, or numerous readings of the preserved in the King James Version)?

Second, was or is the doxology in Romans "canonical" after 14:23, after 15:33, or after 16:23, or after both 14:23 and 16:23 where several manuscripts put it? Or was this doxology never part of Romans, as attested by other manuscripts and church writers? And if a fourteen-chapter Romans was a literary successor to a sixteen-chapter Romans, which form of Romans is "original" and which is "canonical"?[103]

I carefully selected four journal articles to critically investigate in response to my questions regarding my own professional practice....
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    In satellite-radio war, Sirius Satellite Ratio made a team of social scientists, designers, and ethnographers.

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    Russell, an advocate of science, was known for his unconventional views and social criticism (“Irvine”).

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    When measured by heart rate, both follow identical temporal patterns to, for example, a critical competitive event.

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Gwyneth Paltrow Goop Critics, Conscious Uncoupling

* This article is based on a paper presented at the New Testament Textual Criticism Section, Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida November 1998. An earlier exploration of several of the issues appeared in an excursus on "" (73-91) in Eldon Jay Epp, "," in Stanley E. Porter, ed., (NTTS 25; Leiden: Brill, 1997) 45-97. The author wishes to thank ElDoris B. Epp, Ph.D., for her critique and suggestions at crucial points in the writing of this article.

Environmental Policy and Competitiveness: The Porter Hypothesis …

As New Testament textual criticism moves into the twenty-first century, it must shed whatever remains of its innocence, for nothing is simple anymore. Modernity may have led many to assume that a straightforward goal of reaching a single original text of the New Testament -- or even a text as close as possible to that original -- was achievable. Now, however, reality and maturity require that textual criticism face unsettling facts, chief among them that the term "original" has exploded into a complex and highly unmanageable multivalent entity. Whatever tidy boundaries textual criticism may have presumed in the past have now been shattered, and its parameters have moved markedly not only to the rear and toward the front, but also sideways, as fresh dimensions of originality emerge from behind the variant readings and from other manuscript phenomena.

2018/1/4 · Request (PDF) | Environmental Policy..

A series of distinctions such as this one veils numerous complexities. Of first importance is the caveat that, while these characterizations describe ways in which the various text-forms may have functioned and how they may be related to one another, they should not be understood as being discrete entities or as having a linear relationship. Nor will every writing or variation unit have incarnations in all of these text-forms: some will have one, others more. For example, an autographic text-form may really be, as far as one can tell, a canonical text-form and/ or an interpretive text-form. That is, if an autographic text-form has predecessor text-forms, it is simultaneously an interpretive text-form, or, if it has emerged from the canonical process without reformulation, it will be identical with its canonical text-form. It should be clear also that, despite some 300,000 variant readings in the New Testament manuscript tradition, there will not always be sufficient variants or other manuscript indications to provide clear knowledge of what a given text represents among these possibilities. For instance, it seems fair to say that something both mechanical and creative has happened prior to, during, and after the composition of our various gospels and that a letter like Romans has a complex history of transmission; thus there is sufficient warrant for one or another of our labels in these cases, and certainly something has happened to yield two noticeably divergent textual streams in Acts, and so forth. Yet, in some larger pieces and in innumerable smaller ones, little may have affected the texts or, where a text has been altered for one reason or another, the reformulation may have left no trace in the manuscript tradition, forever obscuring the earlier "original." Textual critics should not expect, therefore, that a search for one or more of the multivalent "originals" or text-forms will be easy or certain -- should they choose to launch it. Yet, in so many instances textual critics have adequate data in their long and rich New Testament textual tradition to make the search for dimensions and functions of "originality" a worthwhile and fruitful one. In any event, the multivalence of the term "original" is a reality not to be denied.

Five Forces - Porter - Critique - McDonough School of …

[5] I was struck by one of Fenton John Anthony Hort's emphases in his three-page description of textual criticism: "textual criticism is always negative, because its final aim is virtually nothing more than the detection and rejection of error" (Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, [2 vols.; Cambridge: Macmillan, 1881-82; 2d ed., 1896] 2. 3. Perhaps this statement or at least such sentiment -- repeated too often -- has contributed to the morosity of some practitioners and to the view of many outsiders that textual criticism is a dull if not moribund discipline. A subsidiary purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the broad relevance, the deep vitality, the high excitement,, and the positive reach forward of current New Testament textual criticism.

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