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Protein Structure and Synthesis

Protein Synthesis

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E2 is the major estrogen in female teleosts, but large amounts of the androgen, testosterone, is also produced by the ovary. The ovarian two-cell model synthesizes E2 and testosterone, where the theca cells synthesize testosterone, which is subsequently aromatized by cytochrome P450aromatase (CYP19) to E2 by the granulosa cells [, ]. E2 stimulates the production of Vtg and eggshell Zr-protein by the liver of female fish [, , , , ], as described below.

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An increasing number of widely used chemicals and their degradation products are found now to induce precocious synthesis of oogenic proteins in fish. Convincing evidence of this effect has been obtained from studies at the molecular and cellular levels of biological organization, in addition to reports on the individual level from laboratory studies. In addition, there are numerous reports demonstrating that fish populations are adversely affected by living in, and accumulating xenoestrogens. Although xenoestrogen-induced synthesis of oogenic proteins appears to possess a potential for ecologically adverse effects, as does inhibition and elevation of biotransformation enzymes, studies are still needed of critical population parameters such as offspring survival and recruitment to validate these findings at higher levels of biological organization.

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Schematic representation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver (HPGL) axis during oogenic protein synthesis in female teleosts. The HPGL is regulated through the negative feedback mechanism by estradiol-17β. The hypothamalus, pituitary, gonad and liver are all potential targets for endocrine disruptors, as discussed in the text. GtH = gonadotropin I & II.

Immunohistochemical staining of a cod (Gadus morhua) ovarian follicle with oocyte, probed with rabbit antiserum to cod zona radiata proteins. The zona radiata proteins (Zr) and the yolk (Y) protein vitellogenin are both synthesized in the liver of most fish species and transported to the ovary. (A) Section of whole oocyte, demonstrating specific immunohistochemical staining of the zona radiata, with no cross-reaction to yolk material (Y). (B) Higher magnification of the cod follicle. Zr denotes the zona radiata (positively stained). The follicle cells (theca, T, and granulosa, G) are indicated with arrowheads. Spherical bodies represent unstained yolk granules. Reproduced from Oppen-Berntsen et al. [], with permission from University of the Basque Country Press (UBC Press) and the author.

Muller and Axhausen, 2011 Muller, K., Axhausen, K., 2011

19/12/2017 · Population synthesis is extensively required by a number of micro-simulation models in transportation. A heuristic-based population synthesis method …

Household travel data synthesis-simulation has become a promising alternative or supplement to survey data from both small urban areas and large metropolitan regions in which data are expensive to collect or the data required to support the planning process have become outdated. This paper proposes and applies model-based approaches [i.e., small area estimation (SAE) methods] to synthesize household travel characteristics. The proposed methods address the sampling-bias concerns in the existing methods. Specifically, three SAE methods-the generalized regression estimators method, the empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP) method, and the synthetic method (an EBLUP without random area effects)-are applied to synthesize household travel characteristics at both census tract and individual levels. The SAE framework of synthesizing household travel characteristics is demonstrated with the National Household Travel Survey data and the Census Transportation Planning Package data in the Des Moines metropolitan area in central Iowa. Results indicate that SAE methods are promising approaches to synthesize unbiased aggregate and disaggregate household travel characteristics by incorporating population auxiliary information and local, small-household travel survey data. The proposed data synthesis methods and analysis findings will provide a useful tool for practitioners, planners, and policy makers in transportation analyses. The paper also points out that by linking population synthesis with the travel data simulation framework described here, this method could be of broad application in transportation planning.

N2 - Household travel data synthesis-simulation has become a promising alternative or supplement to survey data from both small urban areas and large metropolitan regions in which data are expensive to collect or the data required to support the planning process have become outdated. This paper proposes and applies model-based approaches [i.e., small area estimation (SAE) methods] to synthesize household travel characteristics. The proposed methods address the sampling-bias concerns in the existing methods. Specifically, three SAE methods-the generalized regression estimators method, the empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP) method, and the synthetic method (an EBLUP without random area effects)-are applied to synthesize household travel characteristics at both census tract and individual levels. The SAE framework of synthesizing household travel characteristics is demonstrated with the National Household Travel Survey data and the Census Transportation Planning Package data in the Des Moines metropolitan area in central Iowa. Results indicate that SAE methods are promising approaches to synthesize unbiased aggregate and disaggregate household travel characteristics by incorporating population auxiliary information and local, small-household travel survey data. The proposed data synthesis methods and analysis findings will provide a useful tool for practitioners, planners, and policy makers in transportation analyses. The paper also points out that by linking population synthesis with the travel data simulation framework described here, this method could be of broad application in transportation planning.

Learn what is protein synthesis. Outlines the major steps in the process of protein synthesis, which is one of the fundamental biological processes.
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APPENDIX B Population Synthesis Design Issues | Use …

Zonagenesis is the E2-induced hepatic synthesis of eggshell proteins, zona radiata proteins (Zrp), their secretion and transport in blood to the ovary and uptake into maturing oocytes

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Simplified diagram of estradiol-17β (E2) or E2-mimic stimulated oogenic protein synthesis. Eggshell zona radiata proteins and the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin are synthesized and secreted by the hepatocyte. They are transported in blood to the ovary and incorporated into maturing oocytes in female teleosts.

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The post-translational modifications occurring to the Zr-proteins prior to secretion into the systemic tracks are not well understood. However, more is known about Vtg post-translational modifications in teleost fish. Prior to secretion into the blood stream, the biochemical information concerning Vtg clearly indicates that substantial post-translational modification must occur in the liver cell to reach the end product seen in the serum. Several changes in hepatic morphology such as proliferation of RER and Golgi apparatus also accompany estrogen stimulation. Firstly, the protein backbone of the Vtg is synthesized on membrane bound ribosomes. Vtg shares this feature with other proteins destined for secretion from the hepatocytes []. Thereafter, the Vtg molecule is lipidated, glycosylated and phosphorylated. Although some information exists concerning the nature and extent of modifications of the Vtg molecule, rather limited information is available for fish with respect to the mechanisms, sequential events or location of these transformations.

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The oocyte is the starting point for a new generation. Most of the machinery for DNA and protein synthesis needed for the developing embryo is made autonomously by the fertilized oocyte. However, in fish and in many other oviparous vertebrates, the major constituents of the egg, i.e. yolk and eggshell proteins, are synthesized in the liver and transported to the oocyte for uptake. Vitellogenesis, the process of yolk protein (vitellogenin) synthesis, transport, and uptake into the oocyte, and zonagenesis, the synthesis of eggshell zona radiata proteins, their transport and deposition by the maturing oocyte, are important aspects of oogenesis. The many molecular events involved in these processes require tight, coordinated regulation that is under strict endocrine control, with the female sex steroid hormone estradiol-17β in a central role. The ability of many synthetic chemical compounds to mimic this estrogen can lead to unscheduled hepatic synthesis of vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins, with potentially detrimental effects to the adult, the egg, the developing embryo and, hence, to the recruitment to the fish population. This has led to the development of specific and sensitive assays for these proteins in fish, and the application of vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins as informative biomarkers for endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals and effluents using fish as test organisms. The genes encoding these important reproductive proteins are conserved in the animal kingdom and are products of several hundred million years of evolution.

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