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The Polymerase Translesion Synthesis ..

KW - Translesion synthesis

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Translesion synthesis DNA polymerase ? exhibits a …

Polymerase eta (PolH) is necessary for translesion DNA synthesis, and PolH deficiency predisposes xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients to cancer. Due to the critical role of PolH in translesion DNA synthesis, the activity of PolH is tightly controlled and subjected to multiple regulations, especially posttranslational modifications. Here, we show that PolH-dependent lesion bypass and intracellular translocation are regulated by Pirh2 E3 ubiquitin ligase through monoubiquitination. Specifically, we show that Pirh2, a target of the p53 tumor suppressor, monoubiquitinates PolH at one of multiple lysine residues. We also show that monoubiquitination of PolH inhibits the ability of PolH to interact with PCNA and to bypass UV-induced lesions, leading to decreased viability of UV-damaged cells. Moreover, we show that monoubiquitination of PolH alters the ability of PolH to translocate to replication foci for translesion DNA synthesis of UV-induced DNA lesions. Considering that Pirh2 is known to be overexpressed in various cancers, we postulate that in addition to mutation of PolH in XPV patients, inactivation of PolH by Pirh2 via monoubiquitination is one of the mechanisms by which PolH function is controlled, which might be responsible for the development and progression of some spontaneous tumors wherein PolH is not found to be mutated.

Investigating novel mechanisms of Translesion Synthesis (TLS) regulation in cancer

AB - Telomerase-immortalized lines of diploid xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) fibroblasts (XP115LO and XP4BE) were complemented for constitutive or regulated expression of wild-type human DNA polymerase eta (hpol eta). The ectopic gene was expressed from a retroviral LTR at a population average of 34- to 59-fold above the endogenous (mutated) mRNA and high levels of hpol eta were detected by immunoblotting. The POLH cDNA was also cloned downstream from an ecdysone-regulated promoter and transduced into the same recipient cells. Abundance of the wild-type mRNA increased approximately 10-fold by addition of ponasterone to the culture medium. Complemented cell lines acquired normal resistance to the cytotoxic effects of UVC, even in the presence of 1 mM caffeine. They also tolerated higher levels of UVC-induced template lesions during nascent DNA elongation when compared to normal fibroblasts (NHF). UVC-induced mutation frequencies at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were measured in the XP115LO + XPV cell line overproducing hpol eta constitutively (E. Bassett, N.M. King, M.F. Bryant, S. Hector, L. Pendyala, S.G. Chaney, M. Cordeiro-Stone, The role of DNA polymerase eta in translesion synthesis past platinum-DNA adducts in human fibroblasts, Cancer Res. 64 (2004) 6469-6475). Induced mutation frequencies were significantly reduced, even below those observed in NHF; however, the average mutation frequency in untreated cultures was about three-fold higher than in the isogenic vector-control cell line. In this study, spontaneous HPRT mutation frequencies were measured at regular intervals, as isogenic fibroblasts either lacking or overproducing hpol eta were expanded for 100 population doublings. The mutation rates estimated from these results were not significantly increased in XP115LO cells expressing abnormal levels of hpol eta, relative to the cells lacking this specialized polymerase. These findings suggest that diploid human fibroblasts with normal DNA repair capacities and intact checkpoints are well protected against the potential mutagenic outcome of overproducing hpol eta, while still benefiting from accurate translesion synthesis of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers.

Regulation of Translesion Synthesis DNA Polymerase η …

Translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase eta across thymine glycol lesions

AB - Polymerase eta (PolH) is necessary for translesion DNA synthesis, and PolH deficiency predisposes xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients to cancer. Due to the critical role of PolH in translesion DNA synthesis, the activity of PolH is tightly controlled and subjected to multiple regulations, especially posttranslational modifications. Here, we show that PolH-dependent lesion bypass and intracellular translocation are regulated by Pirh2 E3 ubiquitin ligase through monoubiquitination. Specifically, we show that Pirh2, a target of the p53 tumor suppressor, monoubiquitinates PolH at one of multiple lysine residues. We also show that monoubiquitination of PolH inhibits the ability of PolH to interact with PCNA and to bypass UV-induced lesions, leading to decreased viability of UV-damaged cells. Moreover, we show that monoubiquitination of PolH alters the ability of PolH to translocate to replication foci for translesion DNA synthesis of UV-induced DNA lesions. Considering that Pirh2 is known to be overexpressed in various cancers, we postulate that in addition to mutation of PolH in XPV patients, inactivation of PolH by Pirh2 via monoubiquitination is one of the mechanisms by which PolH function is controlled, which might be responsible for the development and progression of some spontaneous tumors wherein PolH is not found to be mutated.

DNA polymerase eta (Pol η) isa eukaryotic involved in the . Thegene encoding DNA polymerase eta is , also known as XPV, because loss of this generesults in the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum Variant. Polymeraseeta is particularly important for allowing accurate translesionsynthesis of DNA damage resulting from ultraviolet radiation orUV.

Translesion synthesis: Y-family polymerases and the polymerase switch

proliferating cell nuclear antigen activates translesion DNA polymerases eta and REV1.

N2 - Telomerase-immortalized lines of diploid xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) fibroblasts (XP115LO and XP4BE) were complemented for constitutive or regulated expression of wild-type human DNA polymerase eta (hpol eta). The ectopic gene was expressed from a retroviral LTR at a population average of 34- to 59-fold above the endogenous (mutated) mRNA and high levels of hpol eta were detected by immunoblotting. The POLH cDNA was also cloned downstream from an ecdysone-regulated promoter and transduced into the same recipient cells. Abundance of the wild-type mRNA increased approximately 10-fold by addition of ponasterone to the culture medium. Complemented cell lines acquired normal resistance to the cytotoxic effects of UVC, even in the presence of 1 mM caffeine. They also tolerated higher levels of UVC-induced template lesions during nascent DNA elongation when compared to normal fibroblasts (NHF). UVC-induced mutation frequencies at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were measured in the XP115LO + XPV cell line overproducing hpol eta constitutively (E. Bassett, N.M. King, M.F. Bryant, S. Hector, L. Pendyala, S.G. Chaney, M. Cordeiro-Stone, The role of DNA polymerase eta in translesion synthesis past platinum-DNA adducts in human fibroblasts, Cancer Res. 64 (2004) 6469-6475). Induced mutation frequencies were significantly reduced, even below those observed in NHF; however, the average mutation frequency in untreated cultures was about three-fold higher than in the isogenic vector-control cell line. In this study, spontaneous HPRT mutation frequencies were measured at regular intervals, as isogenic fibroblasts either lacking or overproducing hpol eta were expanded for 100 population doublings. The mutation rates estimated from these results were not significantly increased in XP115LO cells expressing abnormal levels of hpol eta, relative to the cells lacking this specialized polymerase. These findings suggest that diploid human fibroblasts with normal DNA repair capacities and intact checkpoints are well protected against the potential mutagenic outcome of overproducing hpol eta, while still benefiting from accurate translesion synthesis of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers.

N2 - Polymerase eta (PolH) is necessary for translesion DNA synthesis, and PolH deficiency predisposes xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients to cancer. Due to the critical role of PolH in translesion DNA synthesis, the activity of PolH is tightly controlled and subjected to multiple regulations, especially posttranslational modifications. Here, we show that PolH-dependent lesion bypass and intracellular translocation are regulated by Pirh2 E3 ubiquitin ligase through monoubiquitination. Specifically, we show that Pirh2, a target of the p53 tumor suppressor, monoubiquitinates PolH at one of multiple lysine residues. We also show that monoubiquitination of PolH inhibits the ability of PolH to interact with PCNA and to bypass UV-induced lesions, leading to decreased viability of UV-damaged cells. Moreover, we show that monoubiquitination of PolH alters the ability of PolH to translocate to replication foci for translesion DNA synthesis of UV-induced DNA lesions. Considering that Pirh2 is known to be overexpressed in various cancers, we postulate that in addition to mutation of PolH in XPV patients, inactivation of PolH by Pirh2 via monoubiquitination is one of the mechanisms by which PolH function is controlled, which might be responsible for the development and progression of some spontaneous tumors wherein PolH is not found to be mutated.

The Role of DNA Polymerase η in Translesion Synthesis …
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Regulation of translesion synthesis DNA polymerase eta …

Sale JE, Batters C, Edmunds CE et al. (2008) Timing matters: error‐prone gap filling and translesion synthesis in immunoglobulin gene hypermutation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 364: 595–603.

EUKARYOTIC TRANSLESION SYNTHESIS DNA POLYMERASES: ..

Prakash S, Johnson RE and Prakash L (2005) Eukaryotic translesion synthesis DNA polymerases: specificity of structure and function. Annual Review of Biochemistry 74: 317–353.

The role of DNA polymerase ζ in translesion synthesis across bulky ..

Yamanaka K, Minko IG, Takata K et al. (2010) Novel enzymatic function of DNA polymerase nu in translesion DNA synthesis past major groove DNA‐peptide and DNA‐DNA cross‐links. Chemical Research in Toxicology 23: 689–695.

of accurate translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase eta ..

Lee YS, Gregory MT and Yang W (2014) Human Pol zeta purified with accessory subunits is active in translesion DNA synthesis and complements Pol eta in cisplatin bypass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111: 2954–2959.

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