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CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF - Lipid

The most known of these is the desert shrub, jojoba, which stores its seed lipid as a liquid wax.

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Important dates in the history of lipids ..

described a type of membrane lipoproteins, proteolipids, whichare soluble in a mixture of chloroform and methanol ().

First description of the countercurrent separation of "the higher normalfatty acids" (C5-C18) ().

Galactosamine was identified in brain gangliosides ().

First description of the cholesterol lowering effect of a plant sterol (beta-sitosterol)in cholesterol-fed chickens(

25/11/2017 · Plant Lipid Biosynthesis

Brassica napus seed is a lipid storage organ containing approximately 40% oil, while its leaves contain many kinds of lipids for many biological roles, but the overall amounts are less than in seeds. Thus, lipid biosynthesis in the developing seeds and the leaves is strictly regulated which results the final difference of lipids. However, there are few reports about the molecular mechanism controlling the difference in lipid biosynthesis between developing seeds and leaves. In this study, we tried to uncover this mechanism by analyzing the transcriptome data for lipid biosynthesis. The transcriptome data were de novo assembled and a total of 47216 unigenes were obtained, which had an N50 length and median of 1271 and 755 bp, respectively. Among these unigenes, 36368 (about 77.02%) were annotated and there were 109 up-regulated unigenes and 72 down-regulated unigenes in the developing seeds lipid synthetic pathway after comparing with leaves. In the oleic acid pathway, 23 unigenes were up-regulated and four unigenes were down-regulated. During triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, the key unigenes were all up-regulated, such as phosphatidate phosphatase and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase. During palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid synthesis in leaves, the unigenes were nearly all up-regulated, which indicated that the biosynthesis of these particular fatty acids were more important in leaves. In the developing seeds, almost all the unigenes in the ABI3VP1, RKD, CPP, E2F-DP, GRF, JUMONJI, MYB-related, PHD and REM transcript factorfamilies were up-regulated, which helped us to discern the regulation mechanism underlying lipid biosynthesis. The differential up/down-regulation of the genes and TFs involved in lipid biosynthesis in developing seeds and leaves provided direct evidence that allowed us to map the network that regulates lipid biosynthesis, and the identification of new TFs that are up-regulated in developing seeds will help us to further elucidate the lipids biosynthesis pathway in developing seeds and leaves.

Plant lipid biosynthesis: fundamentals and agricultural , ..

The amount of lipids in plant parts varies from as low as 0.1% in potatoes to about 70% in pecan nuts.

Lipids have many important biological functions, including storing energy, signaling and acting as structural components of cell membranes [, ]. Lipids, which are important biological macromolecules, occur in different forms, including fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids and glycolipids. In plants, the lipid type and contents differ between the leaf and seed: plant seed is the oil-rich organ, whereas leaf mainly contains glycolipids and phospholipids.

He reported the first composition of the brain lipids including asaponifiable fraction (céphalote) soluble in ether and containing 5.8% ofphosphorus and a non-saponifiable fraction (cérébrote) containing 2.3% ofphosphorus ().

Phospholipid Biosynthesis, Annual Review of Plant …

In this review an overall view of phospholipid biosynthesis and the origin of the various molecular components is presented.

reported the reversed-phase separation of fatty acids by acomplex two-dimensional TLC employing a catalytic hydrogenationon the plate ().

First description of a direct titration method for analytical hydrogenation todetermine precisely the unsaturation of lipids ().

Discovery of O-amino acid (alanyl and lysyl) esters of phosphatidylglycerol in agram-positive bacteria ().

The first GLC analysis of natural triglycerides from milk fat was reported ().

Hematoside, the ganglioside of horse erythrocytes, is the first ganglioside(GM3) whose structure was elucidated ().

The complete structure of sulfatide (sulfated galactosylceramide) was elucidatedincluding the position of the sulfate group attached to the C3 of galactose ().

Methyl jasmonate was discovered in flowers of jasmine and was shown to be afragrant component in the essential oil from these flowers ().

Discovery of diether-type phospholipids in a an extremely halophilic bacteria () ().

First demonstration of the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and itsglycerol ester in lipid extractsof the sea anemone, ().

discovered that phosphatidylethanolamine may generate phosphatidylcholine via three successive methylation steps (using in vivo labeled methionine) ().

First description of the exact structure of phosphatidylinositol (mainly the diester phosphate link between the 3-carbon of glycerol and the D-1-hydroxyl of the inositol) ().

The first major compositional analysis of the lipids of a virus (Influenza virus) was performed by Frommhagen LH et al.

Storage lipids may be accumulated in one or both of the main types of seed tissue, embryo or endosperm.
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  • Plant Lipid Biosynthesis - Google Books

    In species such as castor bean, coriander or carrot, the endosperm is the main site of lipid accumulation.

  • Plant Lipid Biosynthesis by John L. Harwood | …

    Plant Lipid Biosynthesis

  • Transport and function of lipids in the plant phloem ..

    in plant lipid biosynthesis ..

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26/05/2014 · Events in plant lipid metabolism are ..

It must be noticed that the -2 position where is most frequently located a polyunsaturated acid appears to be the more stable position with respect to lipid oxidation at least in the case of triacylglycerols in which one polyunsaturated fatty acid occurs in combination with two saturated fatty acids (review in ).



The composition and structure of natural vegetal oils may be modified by chemical or enzymatic processes known as or .

Some seed oils contain also and are known as hydroxy acid oils.

Various enzymes involved in plant lipid biosynthesis including ..

Eukaryotic biochemistry is organized throughout the cell in and on membrane-bound organelles. When engineering metabolic pathways this organization is often lost, resulting in flux imbalance and a loss of kinetic advantages from enzyme colocalization and substrate channeling. Here, we develop a protein-based scaffold for colocalizing multienzyme pathways on the membranes of intracellular lipid droplets. Scaffolds based on the plant lipid droplet protein oleosin and cohesin-dockerin interaction pairs recruited upstream enzymes in yeast ester biosynthesis to the native localization of the terminal reaction step, alcohol--acetyltransferase (Atf1). The native localization is necessary for high activity and pathway assembly in close proximity to Atf1 increased pathway flux. Screening a library of scaffold variants further showed that pathway structure can alter catalysis and revealed an optimized scaffold and pathway expression levels that produced ethyl acetate at a rate nearly 2-fold greater than unstructured pathways. This strategy should prove useful in spatially organizing other metabolic pathways with key lipid droplet-localized and membrane-bound reaction steps.

Transcriptome Analysis Comparison of Lipid Biosynthesis …

Thus, dicoumaroyl acetyl glycerol, diferuloyl acetylglycerol and feruloyl coumaroyl acetyl glycerol have been isolated in budexudates of various species.

A phenolic triglyceride displaying a cytotoxic activity, 1,3-dibehenyl-2-ferulylglyceride, has been isolated from , a plant (Thymelaeaceae)distributed in India, Thailand and Philippines ().

Transcriptome Analysis Comparison of Lipid Biosynthesis in the ..

Many digestive disorders are due to a lack of bile and digestive juices, which result in sluggish digestion (causing bloating and an uncomfortable feeling of fullness after a meal, intestinal gas, fermentation and belching, and poor absorption of nutrients in the stomach and bowel). Boldo is one of the best natural remedies for these types of digestive problems because it stimulates the production and secretion of bile and other digestive juices in the stomach, gallbladder, and liver, thereby maximizing and speeding digestive processes in general. It also is one of the first natural remedies natural health practitioners use to assist in detoxifying the liver and to prevent liver damage from toxins and drugs that are known to have a toxic effect on the liver. However, consumers should not exceed the recommended dosages for boldo: it is a very powerful and active plant that should be treated with respect.

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