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Photosynthesis - Wikipedia

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If placed in a suitable nutrient environment, cells and tissues of many organisms are ableto reproduce and form new plants or animals. Now, we will deal with vegetable tissues,whose culture is simpler than that of animal cellules and tissues. It is necessary toprepare a nutritive and sterilized culture medium for the piece of plant tissue. Keep theculture in the suitable conditions of light and temperature and which vary from plant toplant. Over many days, you will observe the growth of a callus or roots or shoots. In thisway you can obtain even whole plants (cloning). These experiments show that special cellskeep all the information necessary to generate the whole plant.
As we have mentioned, it is necessary avoid bacteria and moulds in the cultures. For thisyou will need sterilize tools, vials, tubes, and nutrient medium. Place each in anautoclave for a ten minutes or, lacking an autoclave, a pressure cooker. The tissues aswell have to be free from microorganisms and they have to be sterilized with bleach (40%solution for 15 min) or with alcohol.
The transfer of the tissues into the test tubes has to be made in aseptic conditions,using a sterile box. Lacking that, make your first trials in a quiet place, as devoid ofwind and dust as possible. The culture medium should contain water, vitamins (particularlythose of the B-complex. For this, use yeast extract), sugars, mineral salts. To enrich thewater with mineral salts, boil some water with a handful of soil, then let settle andfilter it. Usually, people also insert 0.5-0.8% of agar-agar to "solidify" themedium. As culture medium, coconut milk has been used. It contains mineral salts, sugars,vitamins and growth hormones.
1 - For yours first tests of micropropagation, use strawberries tissues.
2 - If this simple experiment interests you, you can continue on the way of the invitro culture of vegetable tissues. In fact you can propagate a lot of plants in thisway. Plants easy to culture are the following: tomato, potato, strawberry, chrysanthemum,geranium, sunflower, tobacco, carrot and onion. You can use tissues obtained from seeds,such as the embryo, but you can use also tissues taken from adult plants, such as tissuesof roots, stems, apical buds, shoots, leaves, even single cells. Each plant and tissue hasits own needs. They are different from each other. You can try the influence of thevegetable hormones, special nutrients, etc.
This field is very broad and complex so, if you are interested in continuing with theseexperiments, you can buy special books and you should build a sterile box.
Plant Tissue Culture for the Gardener
Basic Principle in Plant Tissue Culture Technique
Plant Tissue Culture Kit Manual
Plant Micropropagation Using African Violet Leaves
Plant Tissue Culture (links)
Internet keywords: in vitro culture plant tissue micropropagation.

PhotosynthesisLab: Floating Leaf Disks to Measure the Rate for Photosynthesis 2013

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plastic syringe (10+ cc) – no needle

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Raising earthworms is an interesting activity for children in elementary and junior highschool. For people who own amphibians, it is an important source of food. Making such afarm is very easy. You have to simply make a heap of soil and mix some cut grass and otherkitchen vegetable scraps and fruit. This culture does not need special care, except forkeeping it humid, watering at least every two days in summer. Once in a while, add othervegetable waste and every two weeks mix the heap with a shovel. You can observeearthworms' digestive and circulatory systems by dissecting them.
Internet Keyword: earthworm breeding vermiculture.



Drosophila, best known as vinegar fly or fruit fly, is the little fly you see flyingaround vinegar and on fruit during the fall. Why raise vinegar flies? To observe theirdevelopment, to observe the chromosomes of their salivary glands during division, toperform experiments on genetics, finally as food for amphibians that have just completedtheir metamorphosis. In this case it is necessary to breed a species that can't fly. Youcan obtain individuals with vestigial wings (wings which are not fully developed)at a university Biology or natural sciences department.
Culture medium recipe for drosophila: water 83 ml, agar-agar 0.8 g, sugar 5 g, brewer'syeast 10 g, alcohol 1.3 ml, nipagin
0.25 g. Nipagin M is used as a preservative in foods and cosmetics, like agar-agar, youcan buy it at the stores that sell science items for laboratories. Mix the yeast and thesugar, add agar-agar and water and simmer for 3 minutes. Turn off the heat. Dissolve thenipagin in alcohol and add to the rest when it has stopped smoking. Mix and let it set.
You can find other recipes at the following websites:
Aquick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit Flies - Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila Culture (how to culture flightless fruit flies)
Observing the Development of Drosophila in Apple Juice Agar
Drosophila Genetics Lab I
A bibliography for an insect field biology course
La drosophile (in French)
Internet keywords: drosophila culture -cells, wingless fruit flies vinegar fly.

-Replace the plunger being careful not crush the leaf disks.

Leaf: ie Fresh Spinach or Ivy(surface needs to be smooth and not hairy; not a thick leaf)

This kit is based upon work undertaken by Debbie Eldridge from King Ecgbert School (Sheffield) while working on a SAPS/Robinson College Schoolteacher Fellowship.

* Note that Cabomba caroliniana is now classified as an invasive species, and has been banned for import, culturing or sale under EU Regulation 1143/2014.

-Tap the syringe to suspend the leaf disks in the solution; they shouldbe floating.
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    How to measure photosynthesis? | Carbon Tree

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    Introduction

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Figure 22 - Anaphase on a cell of garlic.

-Using your 400 mL beaker, prepare .2% solution by measuring about 1.5 gof sodium bicarbonate () into 300 mL of clean drinking water and stiruntil dissolved.

Websites which propose experiments

-Add 2 small drops of liquid soap to your solution and stir gently. The soap will wetthe hydrophobic surface of the leaf allowing the solution to be drawn into theleaf.

There are plenty of methods available to measure photosynthesis

-Pull on the plunger to draw in a small volume of sodium bicarbonatesolution enough to suspend the leaf disks (~1/4th of the syringefull).

Measuring the rate of photosynthesis - Science and …

-Slowly push on the plunger until no air remains in the barrel or nozzle;stop before any solution comes out. Again, leaf disks should be floating in thebarrel of the syringe.

How We Measure Photosynthesis - YouTube

-The bicarbonate will serve as an alternate dissolved source of carbondioxide, which is introduced in the Calvin cycle to help provide carbon forglucose, for photosynthesis.

Measuring the Rate of Photosynthesis | Photosynthesis …

-Holding a finger over the syringe opening, draw back on the plunger “gently”until you feel a slight press on your finger in order to create a vacuum for~10 seconds. Very small bubbles may be coming off the leaves if you are doingthis correctly.

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