Photosynthesis is a step in the global nitrogen cycle
the atmospheric phase is predominant in the global nitrogen cycle
Photosynthesis is a step in the global nitrogen cycle a ..
*Effect of plants on Aquarium Cycling:
As mentioned earlier, many plants such as Hornwort also remove nitrogenous waste.
I usually do not add all the plants I desire until the aquarium is fully cycled (regardless of method used), which is usually 2-3 weeks.
The plants will help carry the waste load vs. an aquarium without plants, in fact in a heavily planted aquarium, it is quite common for the plants to remove all nitrogenous compounds before bacteria can act upon these, thus neutralizing any bacteria based bio filter.
I personally like to see at least some bacteria establish it self before a full load of plants are added (but there are others with have no problem with such a method). Having plants in the beginning does help keep the dangers of ammonia (NH3) or Nitrites (NO2) from building to toxic levels, which allows for a quicker addition of fish to your aquarium.
What heavily planted aquarium keepers should be aware of is that if the plants suddenly shut down their photosynthesis and all nutrient uptake, this can result in sudden ammonia spikes. This includes light failures, medication or certain medication combinations, or any other factor that neutralizes plant bio functioning. For this reason, having a seeded bio filter, even if in another aquarium that can be moved over is important. The AAP Hydro Sponge Filters are excellent for such a use.
Steps of Carbon Cycle
Carbon enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide from respiration and combustion ( burning and breathing)
Carbon dioxide is absorbed by producers to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis.
Chapters 1: Understanding our Environment and 2: ..
How engineering crop photosynthesis for rising CO2 and temperature could be one important route to alleviationAU - Kromdijk,JohannesAU - Long,Stephen P.PY - 2016/3/2Y1 - 2016/3/2N2 - Global climate change is likely to severely impact human food production.
How is it Used?
The carbon cycle is used for plants in Photosynthesis to make simple sugars such as glucose for the pants consumption.
The carbon cycle is used for the release of oxygen by plants taking in the carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen as a by product of photosynthsis so we humans can breath.
Steps of Nitrogen Cycle.
Step 1: Nitrogen fixation
- special bacteria convert nitrogen gas to ammonia which plants can use
Step 2: Nitrification
- ammonia is converted into nitrite ions which the plants can take in as nutrients.
Step 3: Ammonification
- when all the organisms have used the nitrogen, decomposer bacteria ( fungi) convert nitrogen-rich waste into simpler compunds.
Step 4: Dentrification
- Bacteria convert the simple nitrogen compunds into nitrogen gas which is released back into the atmosphere to begin the cycle again.
5 Stages of Nitrogen Cycle (With Diagram) - Biology …
The aquarium nitrogen cycle is simply put the method by which diffusion from the gills of the fish and their wastes, as well as other decomposing organic matter (such as uneaten fish food) is converted from Ammonia or Ammonium to Nitrites to Nitrates.
Then Nitrates are then either converted to free nitrogen (which is a gas that will not remain in the water) by plants or de-nitrifying anaerobic bacteria, or you remove/lower your nitrates by way of regular water changes, or by using chemical absorbents such as Purigen.
Without this process going on in your aquarium/pond the keeping of fish or other inhabitants would be nearly impossible as ammonia is highly toxic in even small quantities (ammonium is not, but is quickly converted to ammonia at higher pH), nitrites are also toxic although not as much as ammonia. Nitrates are not toxic to most freshwater fish except in high amounts with long term exposure (this is not the case for many saltwater inhabitants though).
So with this in mind it is important to have an established aquarium nitrogen cycle in your aquarium or pond.
Nitrogen is an element vital to all life processes on Earth. Nitrogen is very important in our biosphere, where nitrogen comprises 78% of the atmosphere, and is part of every living tissue. It is a component of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. With the exception of carbon, nitrogen is the most universal element of life. Life could not exist without nitrogen. .
Nitrogen is essential for organic development; nitrogenous compounds are also required by some organisms for metabolic functions and respiration. Unfortunately, free nitrogen in the atmosphere is not in a form that is usable by plants or animals. Because of its stable structural formula, it is relatively inert and does not combine readily with other elements.
All living organisms, from fish to plants, have great quantities of assimilated nitrogen in their tissues. Nitrogen is a fundamental ingredient for the formation of proteins and nucleic acids. Every organism you place in your aquarium adds nitrogen based compounds; from fish to coral, to live rock, to plants.
The introduction of food also adds nitrogen. Dead or alive, they are organic masses, and possess the same nitrogenous attributes as the fish, plants, invertebrates you added to your aquarium.
Inorganic nitrogen is added two ways: the atmosphere and new water. Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is incorporated into our aquarium water by way of nitrogen fixing bacteria and by Cyanobacteria (bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis) as ammonia (NH3). Some Cyanobacteria fix nitrogen gas, which cannot be used by plants, into ammonia, nitrites (NO2-) or nitrates (NO3-). Nitrates can then be utilized by plants and converted to nucleic acids and protein.
Inorganic nitrogenous compounds from our tap or well water also enter our aquarium, often as Nitrites or Nitrates. Reverse Osmosis can remove much of this.
For more about tap water, please see this article:
Denitrification is the process by which microorganisms convert nitrate (NO3) to nitrogen gas (N2). In terms of the global nitrogen cycle, denitrification serves to balance nitrogen fixation by removing fixed nitrogen (rather than supplying it) to the biosphere.
Most denitrifying bacteria are heterotrophic (such as Paracoccus denitrificans and various pseudomonads), utilizing organic carbon, hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide as electron donor and nitrate as electron acceptor. The electron donor is oxidized (to CO2, water or sulfate) and nitrate is contemporaneously reduced to dinitrogen gas (N2).
Denitrifying bacteria require a source of reductant (energy) and a source of oxidant (nitrate).
This process can take place in an environment of very limited oxygen by anaerobic bacteria. This process is more common in Marine aquaria and takes place in fine #00 sand, live rock, or aquarium mud.
In freshwater aquariums this process often produces potentially dangerous Hydrogen Sulfide, but by maintaining an oxygen level above 1 ppm, this can be avoided. Plants roots are great for maintaining this balance of oxygen in the gravel for proper Nitrate removal by allowing very small amounts of oxygen into the substrate which promotes nitrogen reduction over sulfur reduction (which occurs in substrate with 0 oxygen).
How does photosynthesis affect the carbon cycle?
Global nitrogen fixation contributes ..
to constrain the global NH 3 cycle.
Photosynthesis in plants occurs in two stages
5 Stages of Nitrogen Cycle ..
The next important step in the cycle is to regenerate RuBP.
The role of rainforests in the global carbon cycle is complex and little known. Plants and animals contain a great deal of carbon, which they take up as carbon dioxide (CO2) during growth and photosynthesis, and which they release to the atmosphere during respiration and decomposition. Although rainforests form less than half of the total forest on earth, their leaf systems comprise approximately 70% of the world’s total leaf surface area. Rainforests have ten times more leaf area than temperate forests of comparable size and fifty times more than grasslands. It is not surprising, then, that they account for between 30% and 50% of total primary productivity (photosynthesis) in terrestrial systems, although they cover only 6% of the total land area of the earth. This means that they store more carbon (as sugars and starches) per unit area than any other type of ecosystem. Rainforests are thought to contain between 40% and 50% of the carbon in the terrestrial biomass (Phillips, et al., 1998), which has been estimated as more than 17 kilograms of carbon per square meter. The rainforests of Amazonia contain between 14 and 40 kilograms of carbon per square meter. The soils lying under rainforests also contain substantial amounts of carbon (in roots, microorganisms, soil fungi and plants), which amounts to about 27% of global soil carbon (Lodge, et al., 1996).
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