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The process of consumption involves the killing of the prey.

The maximum is present in the summer and the minimum in winter.

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compared to summer (more sunlight time, more intense light, faster)

Previously it was stated that anthocyanins are expressed under certain conditions. This expression too can vary from tree to tree, or from year to year. Years where the autumn months do not result in freezing nights, the anthocyanins are not expressed as well. As a result the trees are not as brilliantly red those years. But years where the freezing temperature results in frost conditions are not good for autumn colors either, as the leaves will most likely die, just causing them to dry up and turn brown. It has been found that the years with the best autumn colors are one in which the spring is warm and wet, the summer is not too hot or dry, and where the fall is warm and sunny during the day and cool at night.

Mid-summer, when strong thermal stratification develops in a lake, may be a very hard time for fish

But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop their food-making process. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor.

Evergreen leaves that renew in summer Holly (Ilex)

At the same time other chemical changes may occur, which form additional colors through the development of red anthocyanin pigments. Some mixtures give rise to the reddish and purplish fall colors of trees such as dogwoods and sumacs, while others give the sugar maple its brilliant orange.

As was previously discuss, chlorophyll is extremely important in plant’s leaf cells to produce sugars via a process called photosynthesis. This type of pigment is found during most of the plant’s growing season, which is during the spring and summer months. Most plants also contain a pigment called carotenoid, as discussed, which creates a yellow/orange color. This pigment, as well, is found during most of the growing season, but chlorophyll washes out its color, which explains why Sugar Maple leaves are green during the spring and summer months. Unlike most trees, Sugar Maples also contain a pigment called anthocyanin which gives plant leaves a red color. This pigment, unlike the other two, is only expressed in the autumn months and under conditions where the days become shorter, the nights longer, and the temperature drops slowly. As this happens, there is less and less sunlight, causing the tree to produce less chlorophyll until chlorophyll production ceases. As less chlorophyll is made, the other pigments within the leaves can begin to be expressed. The rate at which this happens varies from leaf to leaf in Sugar Maple, so the leaves of one single tree can give a whole assortment of colors at any given time.

Is more extensive in summer than winter;

During the spring and summer the leaves have served as factories where most of the foods necessary for the tree's growth are manufactured. This food-making process takes place in the leaf in numerous cells containing chlorophyll, which gives the leaf its green color. This extraordinary chemical absorbs from sunlight the energy that is used in transforming carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, such as sugars and starch.

Temperature, light, and water supply have an influence on the degree and the duration of fall color. Low temperatures above freezing will favor anthocyanin formation producing bright reds in maples. However, early frost will weaken the brilliant red color. Rainy and/or overcast days tend to increase the intensity of fall colors. The best time to enjoy the autumn color would be on a clear, dry, and cool (not freezing) day.

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    07/05/2013 · As plants begin to photosynthesize in the spring and summer, ..

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    These plants have a harder time with photosynthesis during the summer months, when it is very hot and dry

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    the summer is not too hot or dry, and where the fall is warm and sunny during the day and cool at night

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Glossary of Terms: P - Physical Geography

Why do some plants have anthocyanins and not others? Anthocyanins in trees like the Sugar Maple have been found to be a form of protection for the tree. They help the tree to take up as many nutrients as it can from the leaves before they fall off in the fall. This way the tree can be as healthy as possible for the following spring when it has to begin to grow again. When the days get colder and colder during the winter, the tree must lose all of its leaves to survive because they cannot handle the freezing temperatures. So as the day lengths shorten in the fall, the vessels that carry sap in the leaf begin to close off. Then a separation layer forms between the leaf and the branch sealing it off. Now the leaf can fall without any damage to the tree. Interestingly, the leaves will fall to the ground and begin to decompose and become part of the soil, which is important for all species, plus the Sugar Maple plant can reabsorb some of the minerals for the next growing season. To learn more about the importance of leaf litter to other species refer to the page.

Photosynthesis Worksheets - Homeschool Den

Every autumn we revel in the beauty of the fall colors. The mixture of red, purple, orange and yellow is the result of chemical processes that take place in the tree as the seasons change from summer to winter.

Photosynthesis Images & Stock Pictures

These latitudinal differences in fluctuation are the result of photosynthetic activity by plants. As plants begin to photosynthesize in the and summer, they consume CO2 from the atmosphere and eventually use it as a carbon source for growth and reproduction. This causes the decrease in CO2 levels that begins every year in May. Once winter arrives, plants save energy by decreasing photosynthesis. Without photosynthesis, the dominant process is the exhalation of CO2 by the total ecosystem, including bacteria, plants, and animals.

Energy - The Royal Society of Chemistry

Because photosynthetic activity is the cause of seasonal CO2 swings, regions with more plants will experience larger fluctuations. Photosynthesis also occurs in the oceans, but little of this CO2 actually moves into the atmosphere, which is why only land photosynthesizers drive seasonal cycles. Two regions of Earth contain the majority of land plants: Northern Hemisphere continents and the tropics that encompass, among other areas, the vast rain forests of the Amazon basin. Near the equator, however, the seasonal variations in temperature are less pronounced. Seasonal swings in CO2 are therefore most pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere, where the seasonal changes in temperature result in very large differences in plant photosynthesis from summer to winter.

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