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Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
Cycle of Photosynthesis and Respiration - VTAide
The fact that this 3-carbon
molecule is the first stable product
of photosynthesis leads to the practice of calling this cycle the C3 cycle.
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In C3 plants the photosynthesis, carbon fixation and Calvin cycle all occur in a single chloroplast.
Look at this gorgeous picture.
granum = stack of thylakoids
Within a chloroplast...
CO2 is "fixed" by the enzyme Rubisco...
3 molecules of CO2 and 3 molecules of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RUBP) are converted to 6 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA)
Phase 1, Carbon fixation:
Phase 2, Reduction:
Phase 3, Regeneration:
6 ATP and 6 NADPH are used to produce 6 molecules of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) from 6 molecules of PGA
5 molecules of G3P go on to stage 3 of the Calvin-Benson cycle, and one will be made available for the production of glucose
3 ATP are used to convert 5 molecules of G3P into 3 molecules of RuBP
The Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast
18 ATP and 12 NADPH are needed to transform 6 molecules of CO2 into 1 molecule of glucose
Chlorophyll primarily absorb blue and red wavelengths of light
3 CO2 + 3 RUBP 6 PGA
6 PGA 6 G3P
1 G3P 1/2 molecule of glucose
5 G3P 3 RUBP
The Calvin cycle (article) | Photosynthesis | Khan Academy
It is a cycle because the some
of the starting material is
regenerated as the process occurs
What's the GOAl ?
To trap sunlight energy and store it as chemical energy to use in all life functions
ATP is a good source of energy, but it does not store well
This is like money, if you had 1 million dollars, would you rather carry around singles or gold?
Where do these reactions occur?
This is achieved by using a more efficient enzyme to fix CO2.
Both C4 and CAM pathways act to concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO, thereby increasing its efficiency.
CAM concentrates it in time, providing CO2 during the day, and not at night, when respiration is the dominant reaction.
C4 plants, in contrast, concentrate CO2 spatially, with a RuBisCO reaction centre in a "bundle sheath cell" being inundated with CO2
Why the different pathways?
C4 plants have a competitive advantage over plants possessing the more common C3 carbon fixation pathway under conditions of drought, high temperatures, and nitrogen or CO2 limitation.
When grown in the same environment, at 30°C, C3 grasses lose approximately 833 molecules of water per CO2 molecule that is fixed, whereas C4 grasses lose only 277 water molecules per CO2 molecule fixed.
Location: Thylakoid membrane
The combination of chlorophyll a & b, accessory/antenna pigments (caretenoids), and special "reaction center" chlorophyll is called a PHOTOSYSTEM
Energy and Life
Photosynthesis Diagram - Shutterstock
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This tutorial introduces mitochondria
Photosynthesis for Kids
ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7 - YouTube
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