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Carbon fixation stage in photosynthesis

Introduction to the Carbon Cycle

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Modeling the Long-Term Carbon Cycle

Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Living organisms - including all plants and animals - release energy from their food using respiration. Respiration and combustion - burning - both release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Through respiration, plants (andanimals) release water and carbon dioxide.

Because of the cyclical nature of the carbon cycle, the impacts humans cause can lead to a number of amplifications and feedbacks. Increasing atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (along with other greenhouse gases) causes higher global air temperatures which in turn increases decomposition in soil, thereby releasing more CO2 to the atmosphere. Increases in global temperature also affect ocean temperatures, modifying oceanic ecosystems and having the potential to disrupt the oceanic carbon cycle, limiting the ocean’s ability to absorb and store carbon.

L., 1990, The global carbon cycle, American Scientist, v.

Knowingthese things about the carbon cycle, we can perform a very good teston our model of the carbon cycle.

This hypothesis, which we term “viral priming,” has been documented in experimental model systems using microbes that predominantly occur near the ocean surface. In one illustrative example, viral lysis of a bacterium infected in the lab released organic-iron complexes that were rapidly taken up by other marine bacteria, as well as by diatoms (unicellular eukaryotic algae). This assimilation increased growth rates of the nontargeted organisms. In a second example, the removal from an experimental system of viruses that infect and lyse heterotrophs slowed Synechococcus cell growth and proliferation, presumably due to a decrease in virus-mediated nutrient release. Thus, what is bad for one microbial cell may indeed be good for others. In the deep ocean, however, we still do not yet know what happens to virus-released organic matter. Is it assimilated, buried, or otherwise exported? What happens to organic matter miles below the surface is important because it closes the loop of the global carbon cycle. Free carbon in the deep ocean is “ancient” (4,000–6,000 years old) and largely recalcitrant to assimilation by microbes, suggesting there may be another supply of this material. Viral lysing of deep-ocean microbes may be a potential source.

Furthermore, even before lysis, the infection of microbes alters host metabolism. Virus-induced changes in host metabolism can be so significant that the resulting infected particle is, biochemically and metabolically, a very different cell. For example, phage-infected cyanobacteria exhibit a higher rate of photosynthesis than their noninfected counterparts, presumably changing their rate of fixation of carbon from the environment until they are eventually killed by the infection. Bacterial cells undergoing active phage infections can also have altered distributions of other major elements, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, making them biochemically unique.

Carbon Cycle and the Earth's Climate - Columbia University

Litter fall is set to be the difference between thephotosynthetic uptake of carbon and the return of carbon throughplant respiration.

The truth of the matter is that we don't know enoughabout the operation of our whole planet to solve this problem withconfidence -- the study of the global carbon cycle is in its earlystages.

A better quantitative assessment of the role of viruses in the ocean will have important implications for understanding past trends in, and future changes to, the Earth system. Curtis Suttle of the University of British Columbia has estimated that ocean viruses may turn over as much as 150 gigatons of carbon per year1—more than 30 times the standing abundance of carbon in marine plankton. This recycling of carbon and other nutrients suggests that viruses need to be considered in quantitative, dynamic models of global change.

As a consequence,when water is scarce, plants tend to close their stomata and thusthey cannot photosynthesize at the maximum rate.
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  • This tutorial introduces the carbon cycle

    Modeling the Carbon Cycle

  • The process of photosynthesis: carbon fixation and reduction

    One option is that we could attach our model of thecarbon cycle to one of our models for the solar energy system.

  • 30/04/2011 · Carbon cycle definition, Ecology

    The data used in our global carbon cycle model lead to aresidence time of about 26 years for the soil carbonreservoir.

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Carbon cycle - Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

Adopting this pre-industrial caseas our steady state has another advantage in that we know the historyof CO2 emissions from human activities pretty well and weknow the present state of the carbon cycle pretty well and we evenknow the rate of change of various parts of the carbon cycle.

Carbon Cycle Processes - Pennsylvania State University

If we add to our steady state modelthe CO2 emission history for the last 100 years, we shouldend up with a carbon cycle in a state very similar to today's .

Carbon Cycle - humans, body, used, water, process, …

Thisenergy is then used to split a water molecule into hydrogen andoxygen; in the process, the plants gain chemical energy that is usedin a companion process that converts carbon dioxide intocarbohydrates represented by CH2O in the aboveequation.

Carbon cycle definition, Ecology

Instead, we willuse the carbon cycle as it is believed to have existed (somewhatcloser to a steady state) in the time just before the onset of theindustrial revolution, which marks the time when human alterations ofthe carbon cycle began in earnest.

Carbon Cycle- Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Another important reason to take temperatureinto account in our photosynthesis flow is that it turns out that inmost environments, an increase in temperature correlates with anincrease in precipitation, and since many regions where plants groware somewhat limited by water, especially towards the end of thegrowing season, increased precipitation leads to a greater yearlyrate of photosynthetic uptake of atmospheric carbon.

The Carbon Cycle steps - The Carbon Cycle

The potential role of viruses in marine biogeochemical cycles has been discussed for nearly 2 decades now, yet the quantitative influence that viruses have at regional and global scales remains largely unresolved. Fortunately, there is a growing interest in the ecological role of ocean viruses. Indeed, as marine microbiologist Mya Breitbart of the University of South Florida posed it, the science of environmental viruses is entering into an exciting period of “truth or dare.” That is to say, there are many established tenets of viral-host interactions in the oceans that are oft-repeated, but that are just now being put to the test. There are also many tenets that researchers should be “dared” to prove, or at least further substantiate. Indeed, a working group that we organized to study ocean viral dynamics at the University of Tennessee’s National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis is but one example of collaborations amongst experimentalists and modelers to characterize viral-host interactions and their consequences on a global scale. If the working group is any guide, future work on ocean viruses will include efforts to combine virus-driven biogeochemical processes, molecular biological data, and mathematical models in a unified context.

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