the oxidative modification hypothesis ..
The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low-density lipoprotein ..
The Oxidative Modification hypothesis ..
Since Daniel Steinberg�s hypothesis in the 1980s that oxidative modification of lipoprotein particles takes place and promotes a variety of atherogenic mechanisms , there has been significant interest in the pathways that might contribute to these oxidative processes both on the lipid cholesterol/free fatty acids and protein components.
The key point here is that this particular LOX isoform can directly oxygenate complex lipids, unlike 5-LOX, and would be a prime candidate to assign validity to the oxidative modification hypothesis in atherogenesis .
Is the oxidative modification hypothesis relevant to …
A third component of this Aim will be to use atherosclerosis-prone apoE knockout mice to assess dose-dependent atherogenesis and oxidative modification of LDL and HDL during CAPS exposure.
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contributes to the pathology of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants may protect LDL against oxidative modification. Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent, has significant antioxidant properties. However, there is little evidence to suggest that acetaminophen acts as an antioxidant for LDL oxidation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effect of acetaminophen on LDL oxidation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The oxidative modification of LDL was identified by conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In the cholesterol group which rabbits were fed a diet contained 1% g cholesterol for 8 weeks, TBARS contents and conjugated diene levels in the plasma and isolated LDL samples significantly increased compared with the control rabbits (ppin vitro studies also demonstrated that the LDL isolated from serum was oxidized by Cu++ ions and this oxidation reduced in the presence of acetaminophen. The reduced oxidative modification of LDL by acetaminophen may be of therapeutic value in preventing the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
The oxidative Modification Hypothesis
If one wants to understand what increases the formation of foam cells (which also worsens atherosclerosis along the way) over the course of years, one must look at the type of LDL particles that contribute to them (modified LDL) and what causes the modification of LDL in the first place. Very quickly I learned that the topic of LDL oxidation, and modification, is a deeply complicated one. This post, by no means, covers all factors of LDL modification but at the very least I began to better understand it. I began to notice that the more chronic sources of oxLDL tended to mirror Ivor Cummins graph of contributing factors to chronic disease. This does seem to point to shared mechanisms, and shared root causes, of heart disease and insulin resistance as he has suggested previously. The role of insulin in heart disease is where I will explore next, in part 3 of Beyond the Lipid Hypothesis to see what hints lie in insulin’s contribution to the disease on a mechanistic level.
Beyond oxidated LDL, I found that there was an additional type of modified LDL called glycated LDL54. Glycation refers to damage of a particle caused by glucose binding to a protein or lipid molecule on said particle – a sticky candy coating that damages the particle (like LDL or a red blood cell). Before discovering this, I was already familiar with a different type of glycation involving hemoglobin, or red blood cells, which is measured via Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). HbA1c can go up in the case of high blood sugar, as seen in cases of advanced diabetes, as does glycation of LDL particles. Some amount of LDL glycation occurs in the healthy system, as is also true of glycation of hemoglobin, but higher levels of glycated LDL may cascade into further problems down the road. Not only is glycated LDL a form of modified LDL which is recognized by scavenger receptors55, but higher levels of this glycated LDL may lead to higher levels of oxidated LDL, as well. According to the research I read on the topic, the process of glucose damaging both apolipoprotein B and the phospholipid shell leaves the LDL particle more at risk of oxidation. This appears to be due to this modification crippling the usage of antioxidants, like vitamin E, in the LDL particle during this so-called “glycation phase”. As a result, this shortens the lag time in the particle and speeds up the accumulation of damage from oxidation56. This creates not only a glycated LDL particle, but a glycoxidized one yet again resulting in increased dependence on clearance pathways previously discussed – contributing to an overwhelming of clearance mechanisms and detrimental development of atherosclerosis over time if the cause of the damage is chronic.
According to the oxidative modification hypothesis, ..
oxidative modification hypothesis was ..
11/01/2018 · association has been explained on the basis of the “oxidative-modification hypothesis ..
lipoproteins and the oxidative modification of atherosclerosis.
As a corollary of this hypothesis, antioxidants that can prevent LDL oxidation may inhibit atherosclerosis.
So that's how the oxidative modification hypothesis got ..
The oxidative modification hypothesis ..
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