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The primary recycling system on earth is the carbon cycle because this is the conveyor belt for energy. The passage of energy is a one-way system but the regeneration of the conveyor is cyclic. Through the agency of the chlorophyll of green plants, seventeen other chemical elements, a suitable temperature, water, and the sun as a source of energy, carbon dioxide is transformed into sugars as a result of photosynthesis. In the process, energy is encapsulated so to speak mainly in the carbohydrate molecule. This is the energy that drives the biological world. Another recycling system is the nitrogen cycle where nitrogenous compounds are converted back to nitrogen gas. By courtesy of the nitrogen-fixing organisms, this nitrogen is re-elaborated into the amino acid glutamic acid which, by an ingenious set of chemical reactions, shuttles its nitrogen into other amino acids and hence into protein. In time, the protein is broken down and its nitrogen released to go back into circulation. Another cycle is the sulphur cycle—and in fact there is a recycling system for every element used in biological chemistry. Now, all this is driven by the sun, the ultimate provider of energy for the whole of our solar system and planets.

Used To Synthesise Polylactic Acid

A recycling system such as this seems more than somewhat repugnant to our sensitivities because of the direct use of human metabolic waste products. But we should not lose sight of the fact that man has used human excrement as a fertiliser on the soil for centuries. In the soil the excrement is broken down by heterotrophic organisms before being re-utilised by autotrophs such as soil algae and other green plants. But from the excreta, when freshly applied plants can assimilate whatever available chemicals are present—such as urea. In reality there is little difference between what is proposed in a space ship and what occurs commonly in agriculture. It would be a funny type of agriculture that prevented an animal from casting manure on the pasture! The recycling principle is the same although the practice is greatly condensed in time in the autotrophic reconstitution — as envisaged in a space vehicle.

recent development and use of a named biopolymer

enzyme or organism used to synthesise PHB Team:Imperial College/BioPlastic Recycling: PHB - 2013 Imperial College/BioPlastic Recycling: PHB.

Warburg seemed most interested in the kinetics of photosynthesis. Obviously Barcroft's manometer provided an ideal system for measuring photosynthesis because of the involvement of gases. But what kind of plant material could be used in such a small container? This must have presented a dilemma, compounded no doubt by another difficult-to-satisfy requirement at that time-the material would have to be bacteriologically sterile. Bacteria and other nonphotosynthetic micro-organisms usually found as contaminants are heterotrophic, and in their metabolism take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide-the complete reverse of photosynthesis. Obviously one could not investigate photosynthesis with non-sterile plant material. But what could be used? Sterile plant-tissue culture was a long way off: there were no antibiotics to help in the sterilisation of smallaquatic plants such as or . Warburg consulted a botanist uncle, who suggested using a green alga . Beyerinck had isolated this organism in axenic culture quite a few years earlier, and it would more than likely have been available from Pringsheim's collection of algal cultures. This was truly a brilliant suggestion! The alga is microscopically small and eminently suited to this kind of micro-experimentation. It could also be maintained indefinitely in a sterile condition and grown on a completely inorganic and chemically-reproducible medium whose components could be got in pure form off the laboratory shelf. What better could be used? Little could Warburg have realised the fashion he was establishing! He also used an enhanced carbon dioxide concentration. It must be emphasised that was chosen possibly for no other reason than that it would have been one of very few algae available at that time in a bacteriologically-free condition.

In 1883 a German botanist, Reinke, reported that the rate of photosynthesis increased proportionally with the increase in light intensity until light saturation was reached, when the response curve flattened out. Over the years 1898-1901 Brown and Escombe had also been conducting experiments on photosynthesis at the Jodrell Laboratory at Kew Gardens. Brown and Escombe's ‘main object of the research was, in the first place, to obtain a direct measure of the rate of photosynthesis in a leaf, when it is surrounded by an atmosphere containing an amount of carbon dioxide not far removed from the normal amount of 0.03 per cent; and secondly to obtain more definite information on the “energetics” of the leaf, especially as regards its power of absorbing and transforming the solar radiation incident upon it ’.(9) In the course of this work they became the first to discern that intermittent illumination could permit a greater amountof photosynthesis than continuous light. They also used air enriched with carbon dioxide. Their estimation of carbon dioxide fixation depended on titration methods applied to air before and after contact with a leaf.

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Organism Used To Synthesise Polylactic Acid Polylactic Acid (PLA) Bioploymer - Bored of Studies enzyme or organism used to synthesise PLA; ..

PDF Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Lactic Acid) for Use Organism Used To Synthesise Polylactic AcidBored of Studies enzyme or organism used to synthesise PLA; Polylactic Acid PDF Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Lactic Acid) for Use Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Lactic Acid) for Cheng, Y., Deng, S., Chen, P.

LinkBack URL; About LinkBacks ; This analysis should name the specific enzyme(s) used or organism used to synthesise the material and an evaluation of the use or potential use of the polymer produced related to its properties Share.

Enzyme used to synthesise pla
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The current interest of our research group is largely focused on the development and understanding of precipitated crystalline organometallic compounds. We are placing a strong emphasis in the study of the synthetic procedures, the morphology, and on the structural determination of such compounds. Special importance is engaged in the preparation coordination polymers crystallized from solutions of supercritical CO2, (scCO2), where the use of a co-solvent is occasionally employed depending on reagents solubility [1-3]. The correct selection of experimental conditions in the scCO2 reactive crystallization technique, allows a precipitation known from other methodologies, as well as new crystalline phases. This procedure leads to the crystallization of stable hierarchical nanoestructures involving micro and mesoporosity. As the preparation of the crystalline materials is carried out in scCO2, these obtained with microporous structures were recovered activated, i.e., with open volume, since the removal of any guest molecules from the framework is carried out by simple depressurization. This method is expected to have many potential applications in the development of green crystallization techniques for coordination polymers synthesis.

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The ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is one of the famous nano-templates usedas etching mask for pattern transfer and for synthesis of nanocomposite materials for wideapplications. Conventional AAO templates were synthesized using two-step potentiostaticmethod of direct current anodization (DCA) at low temperature (0-10°C) to avoid dissolutioneffect. In this talk, the synthesis and characteristics of AAO using conventionallow-temperature anodization and an effective method of room-temperature hybrid pulseanodization (HPA) are presented for the comparison. The HPA with normal-positive andsmall-negative voltages for AAO synthesis can be accomplished at relatively hightemperature of 15-25°C for enhancing AAO characteristics from both the cheap low-purity(99%) and costly high-purity (99.997%) aluminum foils. The pore distribution uniformity andcircularity of AAO by HPA is much better than DCA due to its effective cooling at hightemperature. The impurity effect on AAO characteristics is also discussed. HPA is differentfrom the traditional pulse-anodization with alternating both high and low positive potentialdifferences (/currents) or both one-positive and one-zero potential differences. HPA not onlymerits manufacturing convenience and cost reduction but also promotes pore distributionuniformity of AAO at severe conditions of low-purity Al foils and high temperature. Someapplication in humidity sensing, photoluminescence and SERS will be presented.

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We might well ask the question — what makes such lakes so productive? One of the first answers would be lack of competition, since very few algae could tolerate such high temperatures and insolation in combination with a very high alkalinity and dissolved salt content. The osmotic potentialities of the waters of such areas must be incredibly high. Also, their high sodium content more than likely imposes a physiological barrier of a non-osmotic kind to most plants except and some of its blue-green algal cohorts, since sodium in such concentrations would be expected to induce symptoms of metabolic disturbance akin to toxicity. For reasons which may be associated with their origin in the days of the primaeval soup, some blue-green algae can grow in such incredibly harsh physiological conditions. But, on the other hand, the alkaline pH renders certain inorganic nutrients insoluble and therefore unavailable (such as iron); and one wonders in what form phosphate is present since most inorganic phosphates are insoluble — especially under alkaline conditions. However, there must be available phosphate, iron and other nutrients present to allow such prodigious productivity. There is a question mark associated with nitrogen since we do not know for sure whether is nitrogen-fixing or requires some nitrogento be present — not that the latter would be a problem with so many birds around. So what accounts for this productivity? More than likely it is due to the presence of sodium carbonate, since an alga growing in a medium so rich in carbonate has access right outside the cell membrane to quantities of potential carbon dioxide the like of which could not be exceeded by industry in the Ruhr Valley or petroleum refineries anywhere. As we have seen with high yields can be got only by using fairly high concentrations of carbon dioxide — other things not being limiting. So the world's natreous lakes if rich in sodium carbonate are Nature's equivalent of industry's bounteous quantities of free and unused carbon dioxide. Unlike the situation in industry where the carbon dioxide goes to waste, the presence of sodium in these lakes automatically concentrates the gas as carbonate which, as it is depleted by algal photosynthesis, is constantly renewed by absorption from the atmosphere. What could be simpler?

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