Call us toll-free

dimethyl sulfoxide, 67-68-5 - The Good Scents Company

Citrinin - Wikipedia

Approximate price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

GRAPE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - …

AB - Black Aspergilli, which comprises species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri, are distributed worldwide and have a significant impact on human society due to both their beneficial and harmful effects. Although black Aspergilli are mainly isolated from the soil, they are among the most common fungi causing food spoilage. Recently, several studies focused on this group of organisms due to their role as causative agents of black rot of grapes and subsequently cause ochratoxin A contamination. Herein an overview on the occurrence, biodiversity, ecology, toxigenic potential and genetic aspects relevant to ochratoxin production and molecular detection of black Aspergilli in grapes was presented. Nine different black Aspergillus species have been identified on grapes with different secondary metabolites profiles. These species are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to characterisation of 3 new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus and A. uvarum. However, the main source of ochratoxin A contamination in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and A. tubingensis. The genetic aspects of ochratoxin production evidenced that a polyketide synthase is likely to be linked to ochratoxin production, in a similar way as in the cases of other mycotoxins such as fumonisins and aflatoxins. Furthermore, it was found that genes in different ochratoxigenic fungi like Penicillium and Aspergillus are dissimilar. Although four genes of ochratoxin biosynthetic pathway have recently been characterised from Penicillium nordicum, no gene proved to be involved in ochratoxin biosynthesis has yet been identified in A. carbonarius. Management of ochratoxin risk in the wine food chain is a challenging task. Various biotic, abiotic, agronomical and environmental factors play an important role in relation to ochratoxin accumulation in grapes and wine. Possible prevention and reduction strategies in the wine food chain have been proposed, and main critical control points and preventive measures to be taken in account in high OTA risk areas is presented.

Functional use(s) - multipurpose additives. Has a alliaceous type odor and an fatty type flavor.

N2 - Black Aspergilli, which comprises species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri, are distributed worldwide and have a significant impact on human society due to both their beneficial and harmful effects. Although black Aspergilli are mainly isolated from the soil, they are among the most common fungi causing food spoilage. Recently, several studies focused on this group of organisms due to their role as causative agents of black rot of grapes and subsequently cause ochratoxin A contamination. Herein an overview on the occurrence, biodiversity, ecology, toxigenic potential and genetic aspects relevant to ochratoxin production and molecular detection of black Aspergilli in grapes was presented. Nine different black Aspergillus species have been identified on grapes with different secondary metabolites profiles. These species are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to characterisation of 3 new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus and A. uvarum. However, the main source of ochratoxin A contamination in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and A. tubingensis. The genetic aspects of ochratoxin production evidenced that a polyketide synthase is likely to be linked to ochratoxin production, in a similar way as in the cases of other mycotoxins such as fumonisins and aflatoxins. Furthermore, it was found that genes in different ochratoxigenic fungi like Penicillium and Aspergillus are dissimilar. Although four genes of ochratoxin biosynthetic pathway have recently been characterised from Penicillium nordicum, no gene proved to be involved in ochratoxin biosynthesis has yet been identified in A. carbonarius. Management of ochratoxin risk in the wine food chain is a challenging task. Various biotic, abiotic, agronomical and environmental factors play an important role in relation to ochratoxin accumulation in grapes and wine. Possible prevention and reduction strategies in the wine food chain have been proposed, and main critical control points and preventive measures to be taken in account in high OTA risk areas is presented.

XCMS: Processing Mass Spectrometry Data for …

New insight into the ochratoxin A biosynthetic pathway through deletion of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene in Aspergillus carbonarius.

The polyketide synthase gene An15g07920 was known in CBS 513.88 as putatively involved in the production of ochratoxin A (OTA). Genome resequencing analysis revealed that the gene An15g07920 is also present in the ochratoxin-producing strain 1062. Disruption of An15g07920 in 1062 removed its capacity to biosynthesize ochratoxin β (OTβ), ochratoxin α (OTα), and OTA. These results indicate that the polyketide synthase encoded by An15g07920 is a crucial player in the biosynthesis of OTA, in the pathway prior to the phenylalanine ligation step. The gene An15g07920 reached its maximum transcription level before OTA accumulation reached its highest level, confirming that gene transcription precedes OTA production. These findings will not only help explain the mechanism of OTA production in but also provide necessary information for the development of effective diagnostic, preventive, and control strategies to reduce the risk of OTA contamination in foods.

Black Aspergilli, which comprises species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri, are distributed worldwide and have a significant impact on human society due to both their beneficial and harmful effects. Although black Aspergilli are mainly isolated from the soil, they are among the most common fungi causing food spoilage. Recently, several studies focused on this group of organisms due to their role as causative agents of black rot of grapes and subsequently cause ochratoxin A contamination. Herein an overview on the occurrence, biodiversity, ecology, toxigenic potential and genetic aspects relevant to ochratoxin production and molecular detection of black Aspergilli in grapes was presented. Nine different black Aspergillus species have been identified on grapes with different secondary metabolites profiles. These species are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to characterisation of 3 new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus and A. uvarum. However, the main source of ochratoxin A contamination in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and A. tubingensis. The genetic aspects of ochratoxin production evidenced that a polyketide synthase is likely to be linked to ochratoxin production, in a similar way as in the cases of other mycotoxins such as fumonisins and aflatoxins. Furthermore, it was found that genes in different ochratoxigenic fungi like Penicillium and Aspergillus are dissimilar. Although four genes of ochratoxin biosynthetic pathway have recently been characterised from Penicillium nordicum, no gene proved to be involved in ochratoxin biosynthesis has yet been identified in A. carbonarius. Management of ochratoxin risk in the wine food chain is a challenging task. Various biotic, abiotic, agronomical and environmental factors play an important role in relation to ochratoxin accumulation in grapes and wine. Possible prevention and reduction strategies in the wine food chain have been proposed, and main critical control points and preventive measures to be taken in account in high OTA risk areas is presented.

Chapter 33 - Toxicology INTRODUCTION

Mycotoxins, selected: ochratoxins, trichothecenes, ergot …

Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential …
Order now
  • GRAPE: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD

    Lipid A - Wikipedia

  • Biological effects of essential oils – A review - …

    Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria

  • A Polyketide Synthase Encoded by the Gene …

    Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order