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What Is a Scientific Hypothesis? | Definition of Hypothesis

Even scientists sometimes use the word when they really mean hypothesis or even just a hunch.

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Hypothesis vs. Theory: What's the Difference? - Versus Wiki

Yet not everybody agreed. Hobbes, for instance pointed out that humanreason preceded experimental techniques and their application. Hethought that human reasoning reveals to us the natural law, andcriticized Boyle’s optimism regarding experimental method’s ability toreveal it (Shapin and Schaffer 1984). Doesn’t human reason guideexperimenter’s actions, in the way it leads us to choose data andsamples, and the way it allows us to interpret them, after all? If so,we should focus on the philosophical study of reason and theoreticalscientific reasoning rather than on the study of experimentaltechniques and their applications.

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis

Bogen and Woodward (1988) argued that debate on the relationshipbetween theory and observation overlooks a key ingredient in theproduction of experimental evidence, namely the experimentalphenomena. The experimentalists distill experimental phenomena fromraw experimental data (e.g. electronic or digital tracks in particlecolliders) using various tools of statistical analysis. Thus,identification of an experimental phenomenon as significant (e.g. apeak at a particular energy of colliding beams) is free of the theorythat the experiment may be designed to test (e.g. the prediction of aparticular particle). Only when significant phenomenon has beenidentified can a stage of data analysis begin in which the phenomenonis deemed to either support or refute a theory. Thus, thetheory-ladenness of evidence thesis fails at least in some experimentsin physics.

test the hypothesis/experiment d

Hypotheses, theories, and laws are all scientific explanations but they differ in breadth, not in level of support.

Hacking’s answer is correct as far as it goes. It is, however,incomplete. What happens when one can perform the experiment with onlyone type of apparatus, such as an electron microscope or a radiotelescope, or when intervention is either impossible or extremelydifficult? Other strategies are needed to validate the observation.[] These may include:

CORRECTION: This misconception is based on the idea of falsification, philosopher Karl Popper's influential account of scientific justification, which suggests that all science can do is reject, or falsify, hypotheses — that science cannot find evidence that one idea over others. Falsification was a popular philosophical doctrine — especially with scientists — but it was soon recognized that falsification wasn't a very complete or accurate picture of how scientific knowledge is built. In science, ideas can never be completely proved or completely disproved. Instead, science accepts or rejects ideas based on supporting and refuting evidence, and may revise those conclusions if warranted by new evidence or perspectives.

Fact/hypothesis/theory/law/scientific method …

For example, while watching , students could be asked to keep lists of scientists' direct observations and the inferences they made from them.

The second significant change concerned the organization and goals ofthe labs. The mega-detectors and the amounts of data they producedrequired exponentially more staff and scientists. This in turn led toeven more centralized and hierarchical labs and even longer periods ofdesign and performance of the experiments. As a result, focusing onconfirming existing dominant hypotheses rather than on exploratoryparticle searches was the least risky way of achieving results thatwould justify unprecedented investments.

Yet, Karaca (2011)[] argues that a form of robustness is inplay even at the acquisition stage. This experimental approachamalgamates theoretical expectations and empirical results, as theexample of the hypothesis of specific heavy particles is supposed toillustrate.

When scientists formulate new hypotheses, they are usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary , and logic.
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Prediction vs Hypothesis - Mad About Science!

Yet neither the proponents of logical positivism nor their criticsever attempted to explain the nature of experimentation that producesall-important observational statements. And the reason for this wasvery simple: they didn’t think that there was anything interesting toexplain. Their views on the relationship between theory and evidencewere diametrically opposed, but they all found only the final productof experimentation, namely observational statements, philosophicallyinteresting. As a result, the experimental process itself was setaside in their philosophical study of science. This has graduallychanged only with the advent of New Experimentalism, with IanHacking’s work at its forefront.

A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a observation or ..

CORRECTION: This misconception may be reinforced by introductory science courses that treat hypotheses as "things we're not sure about yet" and that only explore established and accepted theories. In fact, hypotheses, theories, and laws are rather like apples, oranges, and kumquats: one cannot grow into another, no matter how much fertilizer and water are offered. Hypotheses, theories, and laws are all scientific explanations that differ in breadth — not in level of support. Hypotheses are explanations that are limited in scope, applying to fairly narrow range of phenomena. The term is sometimes used to refer to an idea about how observable phenomena are related — but the term is also used in other ways within science. Theories are deep explanations that apply to a broad range of phenomena and that may integrate many hypotheses and laws. To learn more about this, visit our page on .

You could test this hypothesis with an experiment: ..

Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend vigorously criticized this view. Theyargued that observations and experimental results are already part ofa theoretical framework and thus cannot confirm a theoryindependently. Nor there is a theory-neutral language for capturingobservations. Even a simple reading of a mercury thermometerinevitably depends on a theoretically-charged concept oftemperature. In short, the evidence is always theory-laden.

Observation, experiment, and hypothesis in modern …

CORRECTION: When newspapers make statements like, "most scientists agree that human activity is the culprit behind global warming," it's easy to imagine that scientists hold an annual caucus and vote for their favorite hypotheses. But of course, that's not quite how it works. Scientific ideas are judged not by their popularity, but on the basis of the evidence supporting or contradicting them. A hypothesis or theory comes to be accepted by many scientists (usually over the course of several years — or decades!) once it has garnered many lines of supporting evidence and has stood up to the scrutiny of the scientific community. A hypothesis accepted by "most scientists," may not be "liked" or have positive repercussions, but it is one that science has judged likely to be accurate based on the evidence. To learn more about , visit our series of pages on the topic in our section on how science works.

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