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DNA and RNA are involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Messenger RNA carries genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm where the amino acids will be connected together.

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Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Transcription - zeroBio

DNA is copied in the form of RNA

This first process is called transcription.

The process begins at a section of a gene called a promoter.

The translation of a mature mRNA into proteins requires several enzymes, tRNA, and rRNA.

The PKM2 gene is expressed by alternative splicingof PKM pre-messenger (m)RNA (). Incancer cells, PKM2 is overexpressed, and overexpression iscontrolled by the oncoprotein c-Myc. c-Myc activates thetranscription of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs)I, A1 and A2, which bind and repress exon 9 encoding RNA sequences(). This results in the inhibitionof PKM1 mRNA splicing, which allows the synchronous expression ofthe PKM2 isoform (). A previousstudy demonstrated that PKM was regulated by the reciprocal effectsof the mutually exclusive exons 9 and 10, which lead to therepression of exon 9 and the activation of exon 10 in cancer cells(). In addition, knockdown of theserine/arginine-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factor, whichreduces lactate production, triggers the expression of exon 10 andpromotes the proliferation of cells and aerobic glycolysis. Thisstudy suggested that the exonic elements are the actualdeterminants of PKM2 splicing, as opposed to classical intronicregions.

Protein synthesis :: DNA from the Beginning

In the 1920s, Warburg observed that cancer cells hada distinct metabolism that was highly dependent on glycolysisinstead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, regardless ofoxygen availability (). This processwas termed the Warburg effect, or aerobic glycolysis (). Hanahan and Weinberg () also revealed that reprogramming energymetabolism was one of the most common characteristics of cancercells. Compared with oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis is aless efficient pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)(). To compensate for the loss ofATP due to preferential glycolysis, cancer cells upregulate genesthat encode glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, whichleads to glucose uptake and an altered metabolism (). Increased glucose uptake is used in theclinic for the detection of tumors using fluorodeoxyglucosepositron emission tomography (). Themetabolic reprogramming of cancer cells provides ATP and allowscells to survive under hypoxic conditions (). In addition, metabolic reprogrammingprovides cells with biosynthetic building blocks, includingintermediates and substrates for the synthesis of nucleotides,proteins and membrane components, which are required inproliferating cells ().

Translation 5¢ 5¢ 3¢ Amino acid Protein TRANSLATION mRNA Codon TRANSCRIPTION 3¢ DNA strand
(template) DNA
molecule Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis A codon typically carries sufficient information to specify a(an)
single base pair in RNA.

protein synthesis - from mRNA to protein - Main Menu

Cells have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms toadapt the metabolism to various physiological states. Rapidlygrowing cells consume nutrients at a high rate and must maintain abalance between the utilization of nutrients for ATP synthesis andanabolic development, including protein, lipid and nucleic acidsynthesis. Cancer cells use glucose at higher rates compared tonon-cancerous cells, but use a smaller fraction for oxidativephosphorylation, which enables cancer cells to incorporate agreater fraction of glucose metabolites in macromolecule synthesisinstead of expending it on carbon dioxide production (,).Consequently, metabolic programming of cancer cells is required tobe flexible, which allows the cells to adapt to variousenvironmental conditions. PKM2 is responsible for the final step ofglycolysis and is key in this process (,). Thepreferential expression and allosteric enzymatic activity of PKM2provides the cancer cells with a growth advantage ,without the accumulation of ROS.

RNA Processing There are three main types of RNA:
messenger RNA
ribosomal RNA
transfer RNA Types of RNA Translation is the decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein).

Translation takes place on ribosomes.

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  • Protein Synthesis and RNA Flashcards | Quizlet

    2. Transfer RNA

  • Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

    Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a carrier molecule for amino acids, delivering them to the site of protein synthesis.

  • Protein Synthesis | Translation (Biology) | Messenger Rna

    This triplet code is transcribed into the codons in mRNA. Each codon specifies one of the twenty different amino acids.

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From RNA to Protein Synthesis - YouTube

RNA and Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis Translation The introns are cut out of RNA molecules.

The exons are the spliced together to form mRNA.

Polycistronic mRNA Definition - Protein Synthesis

messenger RNA
transfer RNA
ribosomal RNA A codon consists of three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid.

The synthesis of messenger RNA is called translation

PKM2 activators aim to induce tetramerization ofPKM2, which results in a decrease in glycolytic intermediates thatare used as biosynthetic precursors. A class of quinolonesulfonamide activators has been reported to possess a distinctivemode of binding to PKM2 (). Theseactivators bind to a site that is distinct from the FBP bindingsite, which results in the diversion of glycolytic intermediatesaway from the serine biosynthetic pathway, which produces serinethat is required for continued cell proliferation. A library of13,000,000 drug-like compounds was screened against the PKM2 structure, and 9 novel scaffolds were identifiedas PKM2 activators (). Thesemolecules had low nanomolar PKM2 potency, with excellentselectivity to other PK isoforms and good absorption, distribution,metabolism and excretion properties. A series of pyridopyrimidineanalogs were also reported as potent activators of PKM2, with goodstability, permeability, solubility and selectivity to PKM2(). However, PKM2 activation aloneis not sufficient to alter cancer cell metabolism. Another seriesof small molecule PKM2 activators did not affect the growth ofcancer cell lines under normal conditions , butstrongly inhibited the proliferation of multiple lung cancer celllines when serine was removed from the cell culture media (). Screening of an in-house fragment-likelibrary of 2,000 other compounds, led to the identification ofanother series of small molecules, which caused 50% of the cellpopulation to undergo apoptosis at a concentration of 36 µM, with104% maximal response compared with the natural PKM2 ligand and FBPactivator (). All the reportedsmall molecule activators of PKM2 bind to a site that is distinctfrom the binding site of FBP, which is located on the opposite sideof the tetramer interface compared with the FBP site.

Structure and function of Messenger RNA (mRNA )

Step 1- Transcription involves the synthesis of mRNA from template DNA. Think of this step as making a RNA photocopy of a recipe from your DNA cookbook

Protein Synthesis Part1 | Rna | Messenger Rna

Li Z, Li X, Wu S, Xue M and Chen W: Longnon-coding RNA UCA1 promotes glycolysis by upregulating hexokinase2 through the mTOR-STAT3/microRNA143 pathway. Cancer Sci.105:951–955. 2014. : :

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