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What does this indicate about the function of chlorophyll?

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Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis …

One chimpanzee and gorilla behavior that can be difficult to comprehend, mentally and emotionally, is male murder of infants. If a chimp or gorilla encounters an infant that he knows he did not sire, he will kill it if he can. That behavior is also . Gorillas have a potentate/harem social organization, and when a male matures he is usually ejected from that gorilla society, but might become subordinate to the silverback patriarch (some troupes have more than one dominant silverback, and even up to seven silverbacks in one troupe has been observed). Bachelor gorillas can try to unseat a silverback to steal his harem, and if successful, the new potentate will kill all the infants he can. The average female gorilla will lose an infant to murder by a male in her lifetime. In chimp society, when a female is sexually receptive, she will mate with all males in the troupe, especially the dominant ones, so that every important male suspects that the infant might be his, and thus will not kill it. That strategy has been nicknamed, “Who’s Your Daddy?” The strategies of dominant males seem to work, as far as producing the most offspring. Paternity testing of chimpanzees, for instance, shows that alpha males and their “lieutenants” sire nearly all offspring in a band.

Responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and ROS ..

The greatest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, . If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Plenty. Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. For example, I use “seafloor” instead of “,” and if a non-specialized term will suffice for a scientific concept, I will often use it.

of chloroplasts function in protein import and chlorophyll ..

The function of chlorophyll is often ..

Here is a summary of lighting requirements for different aquarium types. I recommend timers for any aquarium to provide good daylight/night cycles, however this is even more important with Planted Freshwater and Saltwater Reef or Nano Reef tanks. Turn the actinic lights on about one to 1/2 hour ahead of the daylight bulbs and one to 1/2 hour later in the evening.
I generally have the brightest lights on for about 12 hours per day, with 1 or maybe 2 hours of less bright or "ramping" up or down of LEDs if used. Sometimes with MH I will have them in a third cycle that is on for only abut 10 hours or less.

Despite commentary in some aquarium keeping forums, there is NO evidence that ramping up and down much longer than 1 hour where strong lighting is used provides ANY benefit to plant growth, fish, or reef environments (this is not applicable where one low to moderate lighting is used and one on/off cycle is all that is needed).
I have personally kept many aquariums (100s) going back to where only timers were all we had and used single time one for strong lighting, partial tank on with full lighting an hour later, and multiple timers. While have partial lights on for an hour did produce results over a strong on/off, multiple cycles made NO difference!
Think of it this way; in tropical regions, there is little difference in bending of light rays from the sun much past an hour after sunrise or an hour before sunset, so thinking a ramp up/down cycle much more than this time will make a difference has no practical or scientific evidence to back this up.

For LED moonlight settings, generally just a 1-5% of your full lighting power setting is sufficient between main lighting cycles.
If you have separate moonlights, I would run these 8-16 hours (I have yet to find in benefit from this that can be scientifically proven other than aesthetics).

ANY fluorescent light used for aquarium applications such as planted aquariums or reef, slowly burns up phosphors and other rare earth elements that produce the light energy necessary for PUR.
As with a UVC bulb/lamp used for a UV Sterilizer, these lights go through a "half life", meaning that a light that is run 12 hours per day that may last 2 years (as per rated life) should be actually replaced every year otherwise these lamps are running at 50% and less of initial light energy production and then often producing much more yellow light and even an imbalance of red that is inducing to more algae and cyanobacteria growth in particular.




The picture to above/left clearly demonstrates the difference we can see with just our human eye between new 6400K Daylight SHO and one nearly two years old.
The color temperature of the old lamp/light.

The reader should note from all the information written above, that when deciding what lighting to get for your aquarium that the watts used is only one third or less of the equation in deciding what lights, what size and how many should be used. I will admit that I still will use the watts per gallon as a starting point with SPECIFIC lights comparing apples to apples; however specimen placement or tank depth, lighting type strengths and weaknesses must be considered too.
Do no compare apples to oranges; such as SHO to T12, or High Output LED to low output LED such as Marineland LEDs. Or even comparisons of a super premium high PUR per wattage input LED to other high end LEDs but that still require a higher input wattage for the same results due to energy loss as heat, less than optimum PUR, use of current reduction technology instead of optimum PWM technology (example the AquaRay AquaBeam to the still excellent but higher wattage requiring Maxspect and ZetLight LEDs)



Please note that besides years of personal fresh and saltwater keeping experience, MUCH more of this information I have written here comes from research OUTSIDE the aquarium industry. Much of what I have learned (and I am STILL learning) comes from this constant research of as many lighting tech research as I can read often from horticulture or other outside sources as noted earlier.

Some examples include the lack of information in the aquarium industry/hobby that must be found elsewhere includes the SHO or T2 lights that are often superior to more commonly recommended bulbs in the aquarium hobby,

There is also good evidence that correct lighting benefits ALL fish as well, including salt & freshwater fish. I have observed better disease resistance in marine fish in loosely controlled studies when lighting is upgraded to higher intensity, high PAR/PUR lights. Proper lighting may play a role in nutrient assimilation, improved Redox, lower incidence of Brown Diatom Algae. Studies in humans that show an impact of lighting on health, may have strong implications for fish (this may be a factor in my studies that showed higher disease resistance when lighting is improved).
Reference:

Lighting that as closely duplicates the sun (not necessarily light that is most pleasing to us) is important for ALL life, although more noticeably for corals and plants. Fish too are part of this chain of life. Basically if you take away the sun and the energy it provides, you take away life itself and I do not think if you are trying to achieve the best environment for your fish whether fresh or saltwater, you are doing them a favor by depriving of this source of energy, so duplicating this is one more part of your "aquarium keeping puzzle".
Reference; .

I should point out that obviously, some fish prefer subdued light, but this is easily handled by hiding places, caves, plants (live or artificial), products such as Peat, Pillow Moss, or Indian Almond Leaves that "color" the water, and simple placement of lights where as some areas of the aquarium are better lit than others with plants/corals placed in way that benefit the most in these areas.

As I noted earlier, I am STILL learning after being in the hobby since the late 60s and professionally employed in the aquarium industry since 1978.
who will shoot down the science that is explained here because it does not fit their view and the fact that they are unwilling to learn.
What is amazing to me, is that often many simply confuse what they like with the known facts of science.
Example; just because you might like green and yellow LED emitters, does NOT mean that these wave lengths are as efficient as source of energy for an acropora coral or aquarium plant.
Another act of scientific malpractice I have often noted is the simple fact that energy lost as heat is energy that is not going to light energy, which all lights are guilty of, but to widely varying degrees, yet many choose to ignore this most basic principle of science when comparing lights.
FINALLY, another example would be moon or lunar lights. I myself prefer blue lights for this, as have most of my clients, but this still does not make moon light blue, as the facts are it is NOT!!







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Phenotyping Technology – Australian Plant Phenomics …

Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis

The , like the prior , was more than one event and had more than one cause. The is what most people think about when mass extinctions are mentioned (as it was Hollywood-spectacular and ended one fascinating line of animals and paved the way for mammals to dominate), and it led to the existence of humans, but the Permian extinction was the Big One. Before the began lifting in the 1970s and 1980s, specialists generally thought that the Permian extinction only impacted the oceans and left terrestrial ecosystems unaffected. The picture has radically changed since the 1980s, and the terrestrial extinctions are now acknowledged as similarly catastrophic. The Permian extinction is Earth’s only mass extinction of insects, and although plants are not normally vulnerable to mass extinctions, land plants also barely survived the Permian extinction. But the extinction came in phases, and each may have had different causes. There is great ongoing controversy and research regarding the issues.

The period succeeding the Devonian is called the (c. 359 to 299 mya), for reasons that will become evident. The second attempt of vertebrates to invade land (which is considered to be about a 30-million-year gap). After all mass extinctions, it took millions of years for ecosystems to recover, even tens of millions of years, and markedly different ecosystems and plant/animal assemblages often replaced what existed before the extinction. The Devonian spore-forests were destroyed, and outside of the peat swamps, the tallest trees in the Tournaisian Gap were about as tall as I am, and even in the swamps, the tallest trees were about ten meters tall, as they were before the Hangenberg event.

Explain why the action spectrum for photosynthesis differs from the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a.
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    function of chlorophyll is often supported by other accessory pigments such as carotenes and xanthophylls

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Where is the location of Photosynthesis

Place a solution of chlorophyll in a beaker and shine a narrow beam of light through the beaker. Look along the path of the beam of light within the solution. What is the color of the solution along the path of the beam of light? (Darken the room if necessary to ensure that the path of the beam of light is visible in the solution.)




Where are the pigments of photosynthesis located within ..

In the absence of the organized membranes of the chloroplast, light absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in solution is given up and emitted as light of a longer wavelength than that originally absorbed. Look into the beaker and notice that red light (long wavelengths) is visible along the path of the light beam. What color(s) can chlorophyll absorb?




This is where the pigments (primarily chlorophyll A …

B. What happens to the radiant energy absorbed by the chlorophyll in the solution? Fluorescence occurs when molecules absorb light of one wavelength and then emit light of a longer wavelength; this property can be observed in chlorophyll.

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