a. Kant saw the logical outcome of Hume's radical empiricism.
Kant's aim was to move beyond the traditional dichotomy between rationalism and empiricism.
b. Pure Concepts of the Understanding: The Rational Component
Thisobservation Kant called "cute." This will gain an important effect as the Dialectic development inthe German Idealism.The first six Categories of Quantity and Quality are sometimes called MathematicalCategories, while the second six are called Dynamic Categories.
The mathematical categories are related to the objects of pure or empirical intuition,while
the dynamic categories are applied to the beings of the objects. The most important one for developing Kant's transcendental philosophy was the categoryof Causality.
Hume denied the objective validity of Causality because it originated from experience andwas considered as developed by our psychological law of association.
Kant agreed with Hume that anything derived from experience does not have objectivevalidity.
6. Absolute Mind as Unity-in-Diversitya. The Absolute Mind is a unified totality of all rational truth, covering all areas of experience and knowledge.Hegel's Theory of Dialectic1. Dialectic is one of the oldest philosophic concepts -- its earliest appearance was more than 500 years before Socrates.2. Hegel says that dialectic is the synthesis of opposites.The Phenomenology of Spirit1. In this work, Hegel attempts to understand the human spirit of the present time by looking back at its development and at its roots in the past.2. He presents all the types of world views, religious faiths, philosophic visions that man has held.3. Hegel will also indicate how each philosophy reveals it own limitations, showing itself to be a partial truth, one-sided, distorted, and inadequate.4. Philosophy will move dialectically until an all-embracing, all-inclusive vision of total reality is reached.The History of Philosophy1. Opposing philosophic systems have competed and struggled with each other claiming to be the exclusive truth.Organicism1. Hegel was influenced by developments in biological sciences and the idea of the interdependent unity of parts.2. Doctrine of Organicism (Hegel, an early advocate):3. Romantic poets viewed true art as achieving organic unity out of multiplicity.Historicism1. Historicism is the claim that the understanding of any aspect of human life must be concerned primarily with its history, its evolution, its genesis, or its roots.2. This more important than the empirical observation of it as it is now.Truth As a Subject As Well As Substance1. Hegel says that truth is not only truth of substances, but it is the truth contributed by the knowing subject.2. He maintains that any truth is truth only as it is created and understood by a subject living in his own time.3. Truth is living, growing, and changing -- it is the truth of the human spirit as it has dialectically developed over the centuries.4. The New Task of Philosophya. To establish a single dialectical system which will constitute a "systematic science".b. To unify the changing attitudes, religious beliefs, and philosophies of Man into a single organic totality, a unity- in-diversity.THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESSMastery of Physical and Living Objects1. Hegel says that the human self relates to objects through desire.2. Hegel sees such mastering actions as the principle of negation, the power of the negative (the principle of death).The Struggle Unto Death1. The desire to master, the principle of negation is present in Man's relationship to other human beings.2. The two selves now enter into what Hegel calls the "trial by death" or the "struggle unto death".3. Hegel says that Man derives consummate satisfaction from this, the overcoming of an object which is capable of knowing that I have mastered it.4. The Problem: Hegel argues that I cannot know myself in isolation. The Master-Slave Relationship1. The victor is brought to a new and more adequate viewpoint - the victor learns not to kill the other, but to make him his slave.2. This stage in self-consciousness is the master-slave relationship.Stoicism1. Because of the contradictions and limitations contained within the master-slave relationship, it is left behind and the human spirit moves on in its development to a new viewpoint.2. Hegel calls this new viewpoint Stoicism.3. Stoic Philosophy, as Hegel views it, asserts that in my thoughts I can be independent and free, whether I am an emperor or a slave.Skepticism1. The dialectic movement of the human spirit now passes beyond stoicism to skepticism.2. The stoic rejects the world to the point of withdrawing into the quiet refuge of his own rational mind.3. The skeptic goes beyond the stoic:The Unhappy Consciousness1. This new world view Hegel calls "unhappy consciousness" and he identifies it as the religious consciousness of medieval Christianity.2. The Medieval Christian has an unhappy consciousness because he is aware of himself as divided, as a split self in which there is an endless struggle between the true and false selves.3. The religious consciousness is unhappy because it knows itself to be a divided self.4. The religious world view recognizes the truth, that what the true self longs for is God or Absolute Spirit.5. Hegel says that the religious world view also has its own limitations.Reason1. Hegel maintains that religious consciousness must now pass over into the realm of reason and philosophy.2. The truth which the religious world view expressed in pictures and symbols must now be grasped by the rational concepts of the philosophy.3. The self must learn that the true absolute is not a personal God but is absolute mind.4. Mastery is the goal which man desires, but there is only one worthy form of mastery for man.5. The master-slave relationship will then be overcome -- there will be nothing more to overcome.Philosophical History1. To Hegel, it is the search for the underlying rational truth of history.2. He applies his own Absolute Idealism -- to penetrate the surface of existence to its rationally and dialectically developed conceptual truth.3. To understand the rational concepts which underlie the facts of history.The Meaning of World History1. It is the scene in which the truth of the Absolute unfolds itself, reveals itself to the consciousness of humanity.2. Philosophically: history is the rational structure of the truth of Absolute -- being revealed in time to the finite spirit (Man).3. As this rational structure reveals itself dialectically in time, it exhibits God's Plan for the world.4. Hegel argues that it is teleological, that it has a purpose (God's goal for humanity).History: The Problem of EvilPhilosophy of History as Theodicy1. Hegel claims that his philosophy of history is a theodicy (a theory to justify, to vindicate God against the charges he has permitted the existence of evil in the world).2. The slaughter-bench view of history sees only the surface (and not the latent and potential in history).3. By this: Hegel means the Spirit, the Absolute and the essence of Spirit which is freedom.4. World History is the process by which the Spirit manifests to finite man the meaning of his own freedom.Reason and Desire1. Question: How does the Absolute bring Man to a consciousness of his own freedom as a spiritual being.2. Hegel says that two elements enter into history.3. Hegel says that Man is driven to action by his own private, subjective will to satisfy his natural instincts, needs, and interests.4. Human Desires: Not a Negative Idea5. Hegel's point is that one's motivation toward any goal, whether it is consciously for my own benefit or for the benefit of others, has its source in desires.6. Nothing is ever accomplished unless individuals desire it and find their satisfaction in bringing it about.The Cunning of Reason1. The Absolute may be said to use human wills as a means to bring about the goal of its divine will.2. Hegel says that this is done by cunning: By the masterful shrewdness, cleverness, subtlety of the Absolute in bringing the rational truth of freedom to human minds.3. Reason, in the form of Absolute, which is the totality of rational conceptual truth, governs the world.The Spirit of the People (Volksgeist)
a. Plato's ideas are themselves what is real.
This is satisfied by what Kant called the transcendental unity of apperception.
Experiential knowledge is thinkable only if there is some regularity in what is known and there is some knower in whom that regularity can be represented.
Thus, while the conclusions of Hume ruin Newton’s physics, Kant says that mathematics and physics take their referent sensitive in the pure intuition of space and time and can, therefore, be built and derive a priori knowledge of concepts and this not only empirically. For the rationalists, would clean the referent they have forgotten and why is their doctrine would have fallen in the formalism through an unending expansion of a priori knowledge in their metaphysics. Similarly, if it would have remained faithful to this reference, it could not have come under attack by Hume.
Empiricists endorse the following claim for some subject area.
Empiricism: the source of knowledge is experience; emphasizes the importanceof experiment in scientific knowledge.[ Representatives include Locke (1632-1704),Newton(1642-1727), and Hume (1711-76)]
Rationalism is the view promoted by people like Plato, Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes and postulates that we can gain knowledge of the world through thinking alone without experiencing it.
2. an empirical method or practice.
The supreme rational expression of this is science.
What is the nature of propositional knowledge, knowledge that aparticular proposition about the world is true?
3. The Real is the Rational and the Rational is the Real:
2. The mind is not blank and empty as the empiricist claimed (only to be filled by sensory experience).
4. The Rational Is the Existent Object "More Deeply Understood"
The third important thesis of rationalism is the Innate Conceptthesis.
Should Space and Time be empirical, they do not have necessity.
"Transcendental" (e) is the negation of "empirical" (e), and "idealism" (r) is the negation of "realism" (r).
There is the other kind of Deduction which is called Empirical.
transcending) experience" and "immanent in experience." Since "realism" is contrasted with "idealism," those two terms are ontological and mean "independent of my existence" and "dependent on my existence." Berkeley was for Kant the characteristic "idealist," and undoubtedly an empiricist, while Descartes was a "realist," believing commonsensically that objects exist independent of us, but who also thought that we could only know their essences through "clear and distinct" innate ideas, not experience.
Also metempirics.the philosophy of pessimism.
The Friesian theories of and of make it possible to preserve the advances of Hume and Kant without falling back into Rationalism or heading for the Nihilism (so different from Hume's Skepticism), relativism, scientism, pragmatism, etc., so conspicuous in the 20th century.
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