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investigation into the effect of light intensity on the rate of ..

In this experiment I will investigate how sodium hydrogen carbonate affects the rate of photosynthesis.

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Essay on The Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction

suppose you are investigating the effect ofhydrochloric acid concentration on the rate at which the acid dissolves limestone (calciumcarbonate)

Free Sample chemistry Essay on The Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction


Oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis but the conditions for maximum reaction rate are intriguing. It can be affected by many things, including: sunlight - its intensity and wavelength, temperature, CO2 and O2 availability, water (which closes stomata and restricts CO2), and any factor that influences the production of chlorophyll, enzymes, or the energy carriers ATP and NADPH, such as pH and Mg2+ availability. You could test the effect of pH and temperature. It sure won't be linear but how well your prediction (hypothesis) and results agree will be interesting. You could also try light intensity. If you don't have a "luxmeter" to measure intensity you could take advantage of the fact that as you double the distance of the light source to the plant, the intensity is quartered (but you'd have to cut out daylight). There are a lot of variables to control and complex biochemical reactions to examine.

Investigating the effect of low temperature on the ..

I am happy with the experiment as I proved that light intensity has an effect on the rate of photosynthesis.

In his 2012 Master of Engineering thesis from Louisiana State University, science graduate Baine Breaux investigated how water affected the combustion of ethanol. His study titled "The Effect of Elevated Water Content on Ethanol Combustion", validated up to 20% water in ethanol as a practical fuel for continuous flame applications. He said that such a fuel can be produced at a lower capital cost than pure ethanol and would provide an economic benefit despite increased volumetric consumption. The use of up to E80/W20 (that is 80% ethanol, 20% water), he said, offered a reduction in exhaust NOx concentration and a reduction in peak flame temperatures without reducing combustion efficiency or exhaust gas temperature. Baine is now Lead Development Engineer at Hiltner Combustion Systems, Washington, and gave me permission to use his graph and photos below.

A good EEI would be to take some calcite to represent the calcareous organisms. Calcite is the most common form of the mineral whereas marble is the metamorphic form. Really, I guess you could use either. To a weighed sample you could add some acidic buffer solution of various pHs and let it react for a set time (maybe 30 minutes). Dry and reweigh. If the pH drops during the reaction add more buffer. What does the graph look like? Is pH that critical? Perhaps you should do triplicates. What about temperature (ocean warming): you could try a change in temperature as a separate variable. I think you may be shocked. There is an interesting article titled "Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms" by Alokya P. Perera and A. Bopegedera in the J. Chem. Educ. 2014, 91, 1951−1953.

The effect of temperature on reaction rate ..

Alcohol is produced but its concentration is likely to be under 1%. Also, most fermented soft drinks are acidified to inhibit bacterial growth. Does this also inhibit the yeast? You could investigate the effect of pH on the rate of fermentation using lemon juice or better - citric acid. The juice of 1 lemon contains about 12 g citic acid. Be warned - you should not be drinking the ginger beer unless you have approval from your teacher (and this is unlikely). Drinking stuff made in a laboratory with no hygiene controls is DEFINITELY NOT PERMITTED.

Heating the water to a higher temperature leads to a smaller voltage being required to achieve the same rate of hydrogen production (as measured by the electrical current). Alternatively, at higher temperatures, if the voltage is held constant then the current will increase and so will the rate of hydrogen output. So there is the basis for a good EEI. Make sure you pay attention to the controlled variables: electrode type and area, concentration of electrolyte, and so on. Because polarisation can affect the variables, it may be best to take your measurements quickly after the start. Note: rather than use an electrolytic cell, a similar investigation can be undertaken using electrochemical cells (as above). In that case the Nernst Equation applies and you can easily see how the absolute temperature is factored in.

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Effective strategies for teaching science vocabulary

This reaction rate depends on the concentration of the two reactants and the temperature. Because the sulfur particles are so fine they form a cloudy whitish colloid. The concentration of the sulfur can be measured by the 'cloudiness' of the colloid mixture. The rate of this reaction can be measured by looking at the rate at which the product solid sulfur S(s) is formed. You may have carried out this reaction in Year 10 during the chemical reactions unit. It is usually carried out in a flask placed on a piece of white paper with a black cross on it - and you time how long it takes the cross to disappear. It is an old favourite. In effect, you are making use of the Tyndall effect (or Tyndall scattering), whereby light is scattered by particles in a colloid [see note below].

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Stability and instability in any system depend on the balance of competing effects. A steady state of a complex system can be maintained through a set of feedback mechanisms, but changes in conditions can move the system out of its range of stability (e.g., homeostasis breaks down at too high or too low a temperature). With no energy inputs, a system starting out in an unstable state will continue to change until it reaches a stable configuration (e.g., the temperatures of hot and cold objects in contact). Viewed at a given scale, stable systems may appear static or dynamic. Conditions and properties of the objects within a system affect the rates of energy transfer and thus how fast or slowly a process occurs (e.g., heat conduction, the diffusion of particles in a fluid).

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My astronaut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the and immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined. A faction of the global elite to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies. My astronaut colleague was involved with the that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it . I eventually understood the larger context of our efforts and encountered numerous fellow travelers; they reported similar experiences, of having their technologies seized or otherwise suppressed, of being incarcerated and/or surviving murder attempts, and other outrages inflicted by global elites as they maintained their tyrannical grip over the world economy and, hence, humanity. It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal.

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8

Instead of investigating the thermal breakdown of sodium bicarbonate in baking soda (as above), you could consider the effect of heat on antacid tablets. These tablets are designed to neutralise stomach acidity so they are basic salts, usually calcium carbonate (eg Quick-eze or TUMS). The process and analysis would be the same as above. You could try Mylanta tablets (magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide) but Gaviscon may be tricky (aluminium/magnesium trisilicate). Remember, in an EEI you are not just trying to simulate real life; in this case you are trying to extend the understanding of carbonate breakdown to a bigger range of temperatures than you would find at home or in a car glove-box. That's why you would use the lab oven to get high temperatures for the trials.

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