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Amino acid synthesis - Wikipedia

The Multiple Faces of Eugenol

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Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

Corey's tamiflu intermediate was synthesized from a bicyclolactam adduct obtained by base-catalyzed Diels−Alder reaction of -nosyl-3-hydroxy-2-pyridone with ethyl acrylate. A compound that has the same array of functional groups with the Corey's intermediate was obtained in four steps from the DA adduct in 47% overall yield. The intermediate itself was also prepared efficiently by simply changing the protective group.

De novo synthesis the formation of an essential molecule from simple precursor molecules

AB - This article presents an exposition and synthesis of the theory and some applications of the so-called indirect method of inference. These ideas have been exploited in the field of econometrics, but less so in other fields such as biostatistics and epidemiology. In the indirect method, statistical inference is based on an intermediate statistic, which typically follows an asymptotic normal distribution, but is not necessarily a consistent estimator of the parameter of interest. This intermediate statistic can be a naive estimator based on a convenient but misspecified model, a sample moment or a solution to an estimating equation. We review a procedure of indirect inference based on the generalized method of moments, which involves adjusting the naive estimator to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The objective function of this procedure is shown to be interpretable as an "indirect likelihood" based on the intermediate statistic. Many properties of the ordinary likelihood function can be extended to this indirect likelihood. This method is often more convenient computationally than maximum likelihood estimation when handling such model complexities as random effects and measurement error, for example, and it can also serve as a basis for robust inference and model selection, with less stringent assumptions on the data generating mechanism. Many familiar estimation techniques can be viewed as examples of this approach. We describe applications to measurement error, omitted covariates and recurrent events. A dataset concerning prevention of mammary tumors in rats is analyzed using a Poisson regression model with overdispersion. A second dataset from an epidemiological study is analyzed using a logistic regression model with mismeasured covariates. A third dataset of exam scores is used to illustrate robust covariance selection in graphical models.

Molecular Biology: DNA structure and function - MCAT …

Protein Synthesis and Site of Action of Antimicrobials that Inhibit Protein Synthesis

This lecture introduces the intermediate filaments, their structure and function within the cell. Unlike the microfilament and microtubule systems, the filaments themselves consist of a wide variety of different proteins. These intermediate filaments have important structural roles in cell integrity both internally and through specialized cellular junctions that occur between cell-cell and cell-matrix which surrounds them. This topic will be addressed again when we look at the cell cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix.

Overall, a step-economical pathway for synthesis of the GH-bicyclic heterocycle of the pectenotoxins has been established that proceeds in 33% to >53% fewer steps than previously described synthetic routes. This new synthetic pathway was used to prepare multiple grams of the GH-system (1), and a simple six-step sequence was identified for advancing this intermediate to a fully functionalized PTX2-analogue. While this chemical achievement delivered the first PTX2-analogue (10) for evaluation in function-oriented studies, this agent was found to possess diminished activities in comparison to the natural product (actin depolymerization and cytotoxicity). In short, preliminary docking studies proved ineffective as a tool to guide the design of a functional first-generation analogue, and it has been concluded that additional molecular complexity to mimic the C1–C26 region of the natural product may be useful in identifying synthetic analogues with natural product-like activity. Studies along these lines are currently underway.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

Due to this lack of step ecomony, efforts were first directed at defining a more concise approach to an intermediate containing the GH-bicyclic system. As illustrated in , the substituted heterocycle 1 rose as an early target for synthesis. It was thought that this system could be accessed from substrate-directed functionalization of spiroketal 2. The stereodefined spiroketal 2 was then reasoned to be readily available from the crotylation product of furfuraldehyde (3), through sequential silylation, oxidation, and cyclization processes.

N2 - This article presents an exposition and synthesis of the theory and some applications of the so-called indirect method of inference. These ideas have been exploited in the field of econometrics, but less so in other fields such as biostatistics and epidemiology. In the indirect method, statistical inference is based on an intermediate statistic, which typically follows an asymptotic normal distribution, but is not necessarily a consistent estimator of the parameter of interest. This intermediate statistic can be a naive estimator based on a convenient but misspecified model, a sample moment or a solution to an estimating equation. We review a procedure of indirect inference based on the generalized method of moments, which involves adjusting the naive estimator to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The objective function of this procedure is shown to be interpretable as an "indirect likelihood" based on the intermediate statistic. Many properties of the ordinary likelihood function can be extended to this indirect likelihood. This method is often more convenient computationally than maximum likelihood estimation when handling such model complexities as random effects and measurement error, for example, and it can also serve as a basis for robust inference and model selection, with less stringent assumptions on the data generating mechanism. Many familiar estimation techniques can be viewed as examples of this approach. We describe applications to measurement error, omitted covariates and recurrent events. A dataset concerning prevention of mammary tumors in rats is analyzed using a Poisson regression model with overdispersion. A second dataset from an epidemiological study is analyzed using a logistic regression model with mismeasured covariates. A third dataset of exam scores is used to illustrate robust covariance selection in graphical models.

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Glycerolipid Structure, Function, ..

This article presents an exposition and synthesis of the theory and some applications of the so-called indirect method of inference. These ideas have been exploited in the field of econometrics, but less so in other fields such as biostatistics and epidemiology. In the indirect method, statistical inference is based on an intermediate statistic, which typically follows an asymptotic normal distribution, but is not necessarily a consistent estimator of the parameter of interest. This intermediate statistic can be a naive estimator based on a convenient but misspecified model, a sample moment or a solution to an estimating equation. We review a procedure of indirect inference based on the generalized method of moments, which involves adjusting the naive estimator to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The objective function of this procedure is shown to be interpretable as an "indirect likelihood" based on the intermediate statistic. Many properties of the ordinary likelihood function can be extended to this indirect likelihood. This method is often more convenient computationally than maximum likelihood estimation when handling such model complexities as random effects and measurement error, for example, and it can also serve as a basis for robust inference and model selection, with less stringent assumptions on the data generating mechanism. Many familiar estimation techniques can be viewed as examples of this approach. We describe applications to measurement error, omitted covariates and recurrent events. A dataset concerning prevention of mammary tumors in rats is analyzed using a Poisson regression model with overdispersion. A second dataset from an epidemiological study is analyzed using a logistic regression model with mismeasured covariates. A third dataset of exam scores is used to illustrate robust covariance selection in graphical models.

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