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Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis — NEJM

An authoritative metareview () shows that a wide variety of early stressors clearly predispose to ASD. Particularly significant is the stress imposed by low birth weight, short gestational period, intrapartum hypoxia () and obstetric complications (). It is the cumulative exposure to multiple stressors during the perinatal period that best predicts ASD: the longer and more multivariate the stress, the greater the likelihood of autistic symptoms developing. The Gardener et al conclusions are supported by the recent study of in which mothers of children who would have ASD reported “more infections and more stress during pregnancy”. Interestingly, there is evidence that males have an increased risk for morbidity and mortality when exposed to these types of stressors (; ; ). It is plausible, that sexually dimorphic responses to early stress contribute to greater male susceptibility to ASD.

Plastids - Plant Cell Biology For Masters- by G. R. Kantharaj

Hormones are critical for the development, maturation, and maintenance of physiological systems; therefore, understanding their involvement during maturation of the brain is important for the elucidation of mechanisms by which adults become behaviorally competent. Changes in exogenous and endogenous factors encountered during sexual maturation can have long lasting effects in mature adults. In this study, we investigated the role of the gonadotropic hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), in the modulation of adult behaviors in Drosophila. Here we utilized methoprene (a synthetic JH analog) and precocene (a JH synthesis inhibitor) to manipulate levels of JH in sexually immature male and female Drosophila with or without decreased synthesis of neuronal dopamine (DA). Locomotion and courtship behavior were assayed once the animals had grown to sexual maturity. The results demonstrate a sexually dimorphic role for JH in the modulation of these centrally controlled behaviors in mature animals that is dependent on the age of the animals assayed, and present DA as a candidate neuronal factor that differentially interacts with JH depending on the sex of the animal. The data also suggest that JH modulates these behaviors through an indirect mechanism. Since gonadotropic hormones and DA interact in mammals to affect brain development and later function, our results suggest that this mechanism for the development of adult behavioral competence may be evolutionarily conserved.

Biology and sexual orientation - Wikipedia

How Sexually Dimorphic Are We? Review and Synthesis MELANIE BLACKLESS, ANTHONY CHARUVASTRA, AMANDA DERRYCK, ANNE FAUSTO-STERLING,* KARL LAUZANNE, AND ELLEN LEE

, Charuvastra A, Derryck A, Fausto-Sterling A, Lauzanne K, and Lee E. 2000. How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis. American Journal of Human Biology 12:151-166.

Sheep are one of the few animal models in which natural variations in male sexual preferences have been studied experimentally. Approximately 8% of rams exhibit sexual preferences for male partners (male-oriented rams) in contrast to most rams, which prefer female partners (female-oriented rams). We identified a cell group within the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of age-matched adult sheep that was significantly larger in adult rams than in ewes. This cell group was labeled the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). In addition to a sex difference, we found that the volume of the oSDN was two times greater in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams. The dense cluster of neurons that comprise the oSDN express cytochrome P450 aromatase. Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression. Because the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus is known to control the expression of male sexual behaviors, these results suggest that naturally occurring variations in sexual partner preferences may be related to differences in brain anatomy and capacity for estrogen synthesis.

X Inactivation. - Inclusion body myositis

N2 - Sheep are one of the few animal models in which natural variations in male sexual preferences have been studied experimentally. Approximately 8% of rams exhibit sexual preferences for male partners (male-oriented rams) in contrast to most rams, which prefer female partners (female-oriented rams). We identified a cell group within the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of age-matched adult sheep that was significantly larger in adult rams than in ewes. This cell group was labeled the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). In addition to a sex difference, we found that the volume of the oSDN was two times greater in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams. The dense cluster of neurons that comprise the oSDN express cytochrome P450 aromatase. Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression. Because the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus is known to control the expression of male sexual behaviors, these results suggest that naturally occurring variations in sexual partner preferences may be related to differences in brain anatomy and capacity for estrogen synthesis.

Accurate assessment of gonadal steroid levels in the developing brain is critical for understanding naturally occurring steroid-mediated sexual differentiation as well as determining the physiological relevance of exogenous steroid treatments commonly used in the study of this phenomenon. Using RIA, we measured the estradiol (E2) content of six regions of the developing brain immediately post partum, 1 d post partum, and after injection of exogenous estradiol benzoate, testosterone propionate, or the aromatose inhibitor formestane. We found sexually dimorphic E2 content in several regions of the newborn brain. At 2 h of life, there was significantly higher E 2 content in males vs. females in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus and preoptic area but not in the hippocampus, brainstem, or cerebellum. Surprisingly, the female hippocampus had significantly higher E2 content than all other female regions examined. By d 1 postpartum, E2 levels had decreased precipitously in most brain regions, and only the hypothalamus maintained a sex difference. Injection of female pups with estradiol benzoate raised tissue levels to that of the male in the hypothalamus but 2- to 3-fold higher in the other five regions. Testosterone administration increased E2 content exclusively in the preoptic area, suggesting local variation in aromatase activity and/or substrate availability. Central administration of formestane decreased estrogen content in the male cortex, hypothalamus, and preoptic area. Formestane treatment also decreased endogenous E2 in female cortex and hippocampus, suggesting de novo synthesis selectively in these brain regions. These data corroborate and extend previous findings of sex differences in brain E2 levels perinatally and reveal an unexpected regional heterogeneity in E2 synthesis and/or metabolism.

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  • How Sexually Dimorphic | Intersex | Sexual Dimorphism

    Plastids

  • Blackless M, Charuvastra A, Derryck A

    Plastid is another important energy transducing cell organelle found only in plants

  • Am J Hum Biol 2000; 12: 151-166

    The relationship between biology and sexual orientation is a subject of research

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How to Measure Sex/Gender and Age | SpringerLink

AB - Sheep are one of the few animal models in which natural variations in male sexual preferences have been studied experimentally. Approximately 8% of rams exhibit sexual preferences for male partners (male-oriented rams) in contrast to most rams, which prefer female partners (female-oriented rams). We identified a cell group within the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus of age-matched adult sheep that was significantly larger in adult rams than in ewes. This cell group was labeled the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). In addition to a sex difference, we found that the volume of the oSDN was two times greater in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams. The dense cluster of neurons that comprise the oSDN express cytochrome P450 aromatase. Aromatase mRNA levels in the oSDN were significantly greater in female-oriented rams than in ewes, whereas male-oriented rams exhibited intermediate levels of expression. Because the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus is known to control the expression of male sexual behaviors, these results suggest that naturally occurring variations in sexual partner preferences may be related to differences in brain anatomy and capacity for estrogen synthesis.

Biologically Constructed | Culture Matters

N2 - Accurate assessment of gonadal steroid levels in the developing brain is critical for understanding naturally occurring steroid-mediated sexual differentiation as well as determining the physiological relevance of exogenous steroid treatments commonly used in the study of this phenomenon. Using RIA, we measured the estradiol (E2) content of six regions of the developing brain immediately post partum, 1 d post partum, and after injection of exogenous estradiol benzoate, testosterone propionate, or the aromatose inhibitor formestane. We found sexually dimorphic E2 content in several regions of the newborn brain. At 2 h of life, there was significantly higher E 2 content in males vs. females in the frontal cortex, hypothalamus and preoptic area but not in the hippocampus, brainstem, or cerebellum. Surprisingly, the female hippocampus had significantly higher E2 content than all other female regions examined. By d 1 postpartum, E2 levels had decreased precipitously in most brain regions, and only the hypothalamus maintained a sex difference. Injection of female pups with estradiol benzoate raised tissue levels to that of the male in the hypothalamus but 2- to 3-fold higher in the other five regions. Testosterone administration increased E2 content exclusively in the preoptic area, suggesting local variation in aromatase activity and/or substrate availability. Central administration of formestane decreased estrogen content in the male cortex, hypothalamus, and preoptic area. Formestane treatment also decreased endogenous E2 in female cortex and hippocampus, suggesting de novo synthesis selectively in these brain regions. These data corroborate and extend previous findings of sex differences in brain E2 levels perinatally and reveal an unexpected regional heterogeneity in E2 synthesis and/or metabolism.

Sexuality - Dr. Anne Fausto-SterlingDr. Anne Fausto-Sterling

Another hypothesis for the origin of this sexually dimorphictrait was that it was driven by direct sexual selection -- female choice. If so,it is surprising that women today are not conscious of being particularlyattracted to men with low digit ratios. However, it is interesting that womensometimes comment that they were attracted to a man's "masculinelooking" hands, albeit without commenting directly on digit ratio. Onewonders if the appearance of "masculine looking hands" includes an(unconscious?) assessment by females of male digit ratio? If so, this would leadmore credence to the direct sexual selection hypothesis.

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