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NOVA - Official Website | Illuminating Photosynthesis

How does putting a sample of pond water and algae/freshwater plants in the light ..

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Rate of Photosynthesis in Pond-Weed :: Papers

USE: For treatment of freshwater and marine ich (Cryptocaryon), Oodinium, external parasites, fungus, shimmy, and even algae (especially in ponds).
Copper Sulfate in various forms can be effective when used properly and carefully.
Aquarisol is an aquarium treatment standby many long time aquarium keepers have used as both a preventative and treatment for many years; HOWEVER this particular product is no longer available.

Although not a first choice for freshwater ich (malachite green/formalin is generally more effective), Copper Sulfate is a very effective quarantine choice for ich and velvet prevention for new freshwater fish, especially when combined with Methylene Blue AND used in a bare (no gravel) tank.
Copper used properly does not generally harm biological filters as quinine based treatments can (that are often used a copper substitutes in treating Marine Oodinium, Brooklynella, Cryptocaryon), however studies have shown bactericidal properties of Copper Sulfate on certain gram positive pathogens, so for this reason Copper should be used with care (or not at all in thanks that are not fully cycled.
See: .

How does photosynthesis work in plants which have leaves of some color other than ..

4. Why did you have to wait for a few hours for the color change to occur?

5. Can you explain in your own words how this experiment demonstrated photosynthesis?

Hydrilla/Elodea | Weed Id Guide | The Pond Guy

Garden - How To Information | eHow

Under normal conditions, the plant opens its stomata during the day and closes during night (photosynthesis occurs during day time). However, respiration occurs during day and night. How does the plant achieve gaz exchange (O2, and CO2 produced during respiration) if the stomata is closed? Thank...

Sediments washed into ponds after heavy rains can change pond color. Normalcolor should return within a few days as particle settling occurs. Heavysediment loads can shade plants and stress fish by reducing photosyntheticoxygen production or clogging gills. Either condition may cause fish deaths.

How to control algae and pond scum - EcoChem

Basic Koi and Pond Keeping Tips and Techniques

The word equation for photosynthesis is:

Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen + Energy

Pond-weed is being used fro this experiment because with a normal
plant that does not live in water it would be a lot more difficult to
view photosynthesis taking place because you can not see bubbles being

Overall I think my experiment was successful because I found
out what it was that I wanted to find out, how does light intensity
affect the rate of photosynthesis.

Pond Stability: Fish require slow changes Changes should happen slowly in your pond
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  • Pond Maintenance - Awesome Library

    01/01/2011 · Explore how photosynthesis works by helping the process along in this game.

  • What’s the Difference Between a Lake and a Pond? | …


  • Why does a lake become green and stinky


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What causes surface scum on a lake

As a generalization, aerobic nitrification takes place in the top 1-2 inches of substrate (deeper in courser substrate, or more shallow in fine sand). While nitrogen fixing anaerobic bacteria oxidize nitrates in an area of 2-4 inches of substrate (again deeper for course media, more shallow for fine sand). Finally Sulfur fixing anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfides generally live in substrate over 3-4 inches in depth.

This generalization can very by substrate size, amount of plant roots and depth thereof as well as how deep certain worms, copepods dig into the substrate. Use of airline deep under sand beds over 5-6 inches that products very limited and controlled bubbles can allow for more de-nitrification while further limiting sulfur reduction.
The picture to the left/above displays this generalization where aerobic nitrification, anaerobic de-nitrification, and anaerobic sulfur reducing occurs based on substrate depth and substrate size (fine to coarse). .

It is also noteworthy that many premium aquarium/pond cycling aids or waste digesters such as SeaChem Stability or API PondCare Pond Zyme contain anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria and can be useful to add during spikes in the bio load of an aquarium or pond to aid in nitrate reduction and lower incidence of Hydrogen Sulfide production from decaying organic wastes (which can also affect water clarity and algae blooms).

The production of Hydrogen Sulfide in aquariums (both salt and even more so freshwater) is a controversial subject, often with unclear answers as to whether anaerobic de-nitrification is beneficial in freshwater due to the POSSIBLE production of Hydrogen Sulfide.
With the most current research (although admittedly not conclusive in my view), you CAN have anaerobic de--nitrification and NOT have dangerous levels of Hydrogen Sulfide produced.A tell-tale sign of Hydro Sulfide production is black areas in the deep areas of sand or substrate, whether freshwater, marine, or especially ponds. The rotten egg odor is another sign although as Hydrogen Sulfide levels in the air increase, research has shown that humans olfactory senses tend to block out the smell.

One key to allow de-nitrification without production of Hydrogen Sulfide is to allow some oxygen penetration of the substrate and as well. In saltwater aquariums, worms, copepods, etc often help perform this work. In freshwater, plant roots achieve this well and also remove raw ammonia as well as nitrates.
Careful vacuuming (or even substrate stirring) can also help, although in a deep sand bed excessive "deep" vacuuming can release hydrogen sulfide that would otherwise be harmlessly trapped in the deepest areas (generally over 4 inches).

Guidelines for Designing and Managing Florida Ponds …

Do you know that long, thin algae that is referred to as string algae? That type, along with black algae is a filamentous type of algae. You will find them attached to something in the bottom of the pond. They usually float to towards the surface where the process of photosynthesis can occur.

ap sample lab 12 dissolved oxygen - Biology Junction

are an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Some are strictly aerobic, but many are facultative anaerobes (they can survive in either the presence or absence of oxygen).
Heterotrophic Bacteria are generally found in most over the counter aquarium cycling products (especially "Sludge Removers") due to their portability and quick activity.
Heterotrophs can be either gram-positive (ex: Bacillus) or gram-negative (ex: Pseudomonas) which in the case of Pseudomonas many gram negative aquarium treatments (such as Kanamycin) can be effective against Pseudomonas while not harming true Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.

Another point is growth (which is why Heterotrophic bacteria are favored for cycling products); nitrifying (Autotrophic) bacteria will double in population every 15-24 hours under optimal growth conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria, on the other hand, can reproduce in as little as 15 minutes to 1 hour.
Unfortunately research has shown that up to one million times more of these heterotrophic bacteria are required to perform a comparable level of ammonia conversion that is attained by true autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, in part due to the fact of Heterotrophic Bacteria to convert many organics into food.

The use of Heterotrophic Bacteria to cycle an aquarium (or pond) can result in a bio environment that does not contain the necessary Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria to rapidly adapt to changes in bio load either from added fish, wastes, or similar; thus often resulting in sudden spikes in ammonia or nitrites when these Heterotrophic bacteria cycling products are not added in a timely or regular schedule!The other danger is cloudy water.

For this reason products that contain only Heterotrophic Bacteria such as "Hagen Cycle" or even the popular Eco-Complete planted substrate SHOULD BE AVOIDED in some aquariums!

Low pH and Nitrification ;

Nitrification involving AOB & NOB bacteria is different at pH levels of above 7.0 versus below 6.0.

Toxic Ammonia (NH3) changes to ammonium under 6.0 and ammonium (non toxic NH4) switches back to toxic NH3 over 7.0
until the nitrification process re-establishes itself at the higher pH

The cause of this change in the nitrification process is still not clearly understood.

From the above article and quote, I would postulate that a change in Heterotrophic bacteria along with possible Redox Reactions or lack there of (a low pH below 6.0 is very oxidizing with little/no reduction which for this reason alone is not a healthy environment.
As well, Autotrophic bacterial adaptations may be part of this process and why there is an interruption in nitrification from changes in pH and between NH3 & NH4.
Since typical real world aquarium environments invariably are going to contain Heterotrophic bacteria (from fish food waste, etc.) and these tests seemed to lock out these Heterotrophic bacteria (using only ammonium chloride), this bacterium might be part of the cause.

During the nitrification process carbonates are used by the aquarium or pond to counter acids produced during nitrification (or other organic breakdown), however without an adequate KH (even for Amazon River Fish such as Discus or German Rams), subtle or even sudden changes in pH can occur that affects the nitrogen cycle

Keeping a low pH/KH can be a double edged sword where by a simple procedure such as a water change with slightly higher pH water can result in an immediate conversion of ammonium (NH4) to deadly ammonia (NH3) with disastrous results.
This low pH, poor nitrifying environment also easily allows for the growth of pathogenic Fungi/Saprolegnia and a depressed Redox balance.

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