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Keywords: Glycogen synthase kinase-3, GSK-3 inhibitors

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), a derivative of vitamin B6, serves as prosthetic group for Glycogen Phosphorylase.

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Glycogen storage disease - Wikipedia

There are often challenges in synthetic chemistry or radiochemistry to obtain the desired probe once the biochemical and physiological characteristics are optimized. Depending on the imaging modality, the synthetic chemistry requirements may vary considerably. For example, optical probes are challenged to maximize photon yield while minimizing photobleaching. PET probes are challenged by their shorter half-life and dependence on automation to reduce radiation exposure. For a PET imaging agent to succeed, a reliable and efficient method of synthesis that is translatable across radiochemistry facilities must be established. Furthermore, the synthesis method must be amenable to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) methods with a comprehensive quality assurance program if the probe is to be applied in human subjects.

Glycogen storage disease; Synonyms: Gycogenosis, dextrinosis: Glycogen: Specialty: endocrinology

The primary carb source in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks is sugar (sucrose) or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both of these are nothing but "empty calories." This in itself makes the consumption of such drinks unhealthy. But soft drinks are also problematic when it comes to the issue of glycogen replenishment.

Glycogenoses - Neuromuscular Home Page

Ivy JL. Glycogen resynthesis after exercise: effect of carbohydrate intake.. 1998 Jun;19 Suppl 2:S142-5. PMID: 9694422.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 50

For times other than immediately post-workout, grains and starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn would be ideal sources for replenishing muscle glycogen as they contain primarily complex carbs.


Wild Chicory (Cichorium intybus) - Powerful hepatic stimulant, increases bile secretion, acts on liver glycogen and promotes digestion.

That said, an important point to note is, "… the amount of glycogen you can store is quite limited. The upper limit is generally believed to be 250-400 grams, depending on the amount of skeletal muscle you have" (Parillo, p.20).

So it doesn't take a lot of whole grain or starchy vegetable consumption to fully replenish glycogen stores. What this means is once glycogen stores are fully replenished, any additional carbs, if they are not immediately burned for energy, will be stored as fat. So high-carb foods like whole grains should only be consumed in moderation.

60. Bijur GN, Jope RS. Proapoptotic stimuli induce nuclear accumulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta.  2001;276:37436-42
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  • Glycogen Storage Disorders. Inborn errors of …

    39. Beurel E. Regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 of inflammation and T cells in CNS diseases. 2011;4:18

  • with a glycogen storage disorder respond ..

    40. Beurel E, Jope RS. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates inflammatory tolerance in astrocytes. 2010;169:1063-70

  • Differential Diagnosis of Glycogen Storage Disorder

    54. Woodgett JR. Molecular cloning and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3/factor A. 1990;9:2431-8

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Glycogen Synthesis and Metabolism

103. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Abraham TL, Alberts JJ, Kulanthaivel P, Jackson KA, Chow KH. . Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor LY2090314 in rats, dogs, and humans: a case study in rapid clearance by extensive metabolism with low circulating metabolite exposure. 2013;41:714-26

Glycogen - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

116. Kaladchibachi SA, Doble B, Anthopoulos N, Woodgett JR, Manoukian AS. Glycogen synthase kinase 3, circadian rhythms, and bipolar disorder: a molecular link in the therapeutic action of lithium. 2007;5:3

09/01/2018 · Glycogen storage disease type 0 ..

98. Wang M, Gao M, Miller KD, Sledge GW, Hutchins GD, Zheng QH. The first synthesis of [11C]SB-216763, a new potential PET agent for imaging of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). 2011;21:245-9

New insights into impaired muscle glycogen synthesis.

97. Cole EL, Shao X, Sherman P, Quesada C, Fawaz MV, Desmond TJ. . Synthesis and evaluation of [11C]PyrATP-1, a novel radiotracer for PET imaging of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). 2014;41:507-12

Glycogen metabolism in humans - ScienceDirect

95. Vasdev N, Garcia A, Stableford WT, Young AB, Meyer JH, Houle S. . Synthesis and ex vivo evaluation of carbon-11 labelled N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N'-(5-nitro-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)urea ([11C]AR-A014418): a radiolabelled glycogen synthase kinase-3beta specific inhibitor for PET studies. 2005;15:5270-3

Glycogen metabolism in humans ..

92. Palomo V, Soteras I, Perez DI, Perez C, Gil C, Campillo NE. . Exploring the binding sites of glycogen synthase kinase 3. Identification and characterization of allosteric modulation cavities. 2011;54:8461-70

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