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Genetic analysis of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in mice.

Olsson, M.; Lindahl, G.; Ruoslahti, E.: Genetic control of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in the mouse.

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Genetic analysis of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in mice.

The levels of zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2), ZBTB20, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican 3 (GPC3) transcripts in the regenerating liver tissue of a 70% hepatectomy rodent model were monitored by real-time PCR analysis at different time points.

Genetic analysis of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in mice

The differential induction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA during liver regeneration in three inbred strains of mice was examined to determine the genetic and molecular bases for the differences in protein production. BALB/cJ, C3H/He, and C57BL/6 mice, previously identified as high, intermediate, and low AFP producers, respectively, were used. Liver AFP mRNA concentrations during normal development and after carbon tetrachloride administration were measured and shown to correlate exactly with the serum protein concentrations. By performing a series of genetic crosses, we identified two unlinked genetic loci that acted independently to affect the inducibility of AFP mRNA. The raf gene, previously identified by Olsson et al. (J. Exp. Med. 145:819-827, 1977), determines the adult basal level of AFP mRNA, and the Rif gene affects its inducibility during regeneration. By using a polymorphic restriction endonuclease site within the albumin-AFP structural gene region, we show that neither regulatory gene is closely linked to the structural genes. In addition, neither gene affects the concentration of albumin mRNA during development or liver regeneration.

Genetic analysis of α-fetoprotein synthesis in mice …

: Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein and H19 expression in liver of BALB/cJ mice is due to a retrovirus insertion in the Zhx2 gene.

To approach the genetic mechanism that turns off the synthesis of alpha- fetoprotein (AFP) after birth, we assumed that a change in this mechanism might affect the low basal level of AFP that can be detected in the adult organism. The concentration of AFP was therefore determined for serum from adult mice of 27 different inbred strains. With one exception, this basal level was between 34 and 173 ng/ml, which is about 10(5)-fold less than the serum concentration at birth. In one strain, BALB/c/J, the AFP level was found to be considerably increased; it was about 10-fold higher than in other strains at 9-10 wk of age. Two other substrains of BALF/c mice showed normally low AFP levels. Kinetic studies show that the rate with which AFP disappears from serum after birth is reduced in BALB/c/J mice as compared to other strains. The increased AFP level of BALB/c/J mice appears to be due to an increased rate of synthesis of AFP, since the rate of catabolism of AFP was found to be normal in these mice. Genetic analysis was performed by crossing BALB/c/J mice with mice having an ordinary AFP level, followed by determination of AFP levels in mice of the F1 and F2 generations as well as in back-cross mice. The results clearly indicate that the increased AFP level in BALB/c/J mice is controlled by a single recessive Mendelian gene, which has been named Raf (for regulation of alphafetoprotein). The Raf gene could be directly involved in the regulation of AFP synthesis, but it may also control AFP levels only indirectly, e.g., by regulating the synthesis of a hormone that controls AFP synthesis.

The differential induction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA during liver regeneration in three inbred strains of mice was examined to determine the genetic and molecular bases for the differences in protein production. BALB/cJ, C3H/He, and C57BL/6 mice, previously identified as high, intermediate, and low AFP producers, respectively, were used. Liver AFP mRNA concentrations during normal development and after carbon tetrachloride administration were measured and shown to correlate exactly with the serum protein concentrations. By performing a series of genetic crosses, we identified two unlinked genetic loci that acted independently to affect the inducibility of AFP mRNA. The raf gene, previously identified by Olsson et al. (J. Exp. Med. 145:819-827, 1977), determines the adult basal level of AFP mRNA, and the Rif gene affects its inducibility during regeneration. By using a polymorphic restriction endonuclease site within the albumin-AFP structural gene region, we show that neither regulatory gene is closely linked to the structural genes. In addition, neither gene affects the concentration of albumin mRNA during development or liver regeneration.

Genetic analysis of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in ..

Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein and H19 expression in liver of BALB/cJ mice is due to a retrovirus insertion in the Zhx2 gene.

Genetic control of alpha-fetoprotein synthesis in the …
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