Chapter 54 - Environmental Policy
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Only recently have businesses adopted a more specific environmental point of view and kept track of progress. However, the processes by which businesses approach pollution prevention can differ significantly.
At a more detailed level, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) was responsible for the development of two major global conventions: the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter and the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, as amended in 1978 (MARPOL 1973/78), and a third relating to oil spills entitled the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation in 1990, establishes a global legal framework for collaboration and assistance in response to major oil spills. (Other Maritime Conventions which are not primarily environmental but are of relevance include the 1972 Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG); the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS); the 1976 ILO Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention (No. 147) and the 1978 Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch Keeping for Sea Farers).
A General Statement of the Tragedy of the Commons
This is the first edition of the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety to explicitly integrate relevant environmental issues within its scope. This chapter highlights a number of basic environmental policy issues which are increasingly linked to occupational safety and health. Other specialized environmental chapters include Environmental Health Hazards and Environmental Pollution Control. In addition, a special effort has been made to include sections concerning environment within each of the chapters on key industrial sectors. When first considering whether such a strategy to integrate environmental issues was indeed warranted in the Encyclopaedia, we began with the very limited perspective of including only a single chapter which would serve as a useful cross-reference demonstrating how occupational safety and health issues and the working environment have become increasingly linked to environmental issues. As the ILO has been stating for the past twenty-plus years: the working environment and the general environment represent two sides of the same coin.
The chapter contains four articles describing some of the most important environmental policy tools being used today to improve environmental performance not only in industry, but also in all other sectors of our economy and throughout our societies. The articles focus upon environmental impact assessments, life-cycle analysis, risk assessment and communication and environmental auditing. The final section of this chapter provides two perspectives on pollution prevention and control: one focusing on making pollution prevention a corporate priority and the other providing a trade union perspective of pollution prevention and cleaner production technologies.
A General Statement of the Tragedy of the Commons by Herschel Elliott
The upcoming regulation will also obligate companies to provide a guarantee of their compliance to the government in the form of a bank deposit that would be used to mitigate pollution if a company’s waste management system fails to meet environmental standards. The decision to impose more tangible consequences for companies that fail to abide by waste management guidelines is the latest in a growing list of laws put forward by the Indonesian government to combat the effects of a waste production rate rising by 2-4% annually (World Bank). Notable directives include Law No.18/2008, which is aimed at implementing the ‘3Rs’ of reduce, reuse and recycle by requiring homeowners to segregate their waste at the source as well as setting out steps for formal waste handling, and Law No. 32/2009, which requires companies to issue an Environmental Management Statement and have an Environmental Audit as a precondition for other business permits.
Another emerging issue area is that of indoor air pollution. In the past we have tended to see large industrial establishments as the primary target to correct unhealthy working conditions. Today, however, there is growing recognition that many offices and commercial premises may also be encountering new occupational health problems due to indoor air pollution. This pollution is related to the increased use of chemicals and electronic equipment, intake of contaminated ambient air, the use of closed air recirculation and air conditioning systems, and the possible increased sensitivity of workers as a result of changing health patternsfor example, the growing number of cases of allergies and asthma. It may be expected that action to respond to indoor air pollution concerns will require a more integrated approach to both OHS and environmental factors than has been the case in the past.
Indonesia’s Waste Management & Recycling Industry | …
The Tragedy of the Commons, by Garrett Hardin (1968)
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It was in the workplace that causal links between health and the environment were first clearly established. It was also in the workplace that the consequences of the increase in the amount and variety of contaminants resulting from the diversification of industrial processes were first felt. Yet these contaminants cannot be confined to the occupational environment. Once released, their pathway may become difficult to follow or trace, but it inevitably ends in nature: environmental toxins are present in the soil, water and air of even the most remote environments. Human health, in turn, is affected by the pollution of the natural environment, whether of local, national or transboundary origin. Along with other types of environmental degradation, which cause worldwide depletion of natural resources, this accords a planetary dimension to the interaction between environmental conditions and public health.
Activists in environmental causes as well as professionals inethics have long applauded Hardin's essay. But then they goon to ignore its central thesis. They accept the environmentalgoals and then, acting as if the essay had never been written,recommend behavior which will cause the environmental commons tocollapse. Consequently Hardin's refutation of traditionalmoral thinking still seems to be not understood. And the needremains to give the tragedy of the commons a more generalstatement -- one which can clarify its revolutionary character,one which can convince a wide public of the correctness of itsmethod and principles.
01/02/2014 · Water, Air, & Soil Pollution is an international, interdisciplinary journal on all aspects of pollution and solutions to pollution in the biosphere.
Media-oriented controls, and integrated pollution control. Media-oriented controls are those which are directed at protecting a specific component of the environment (air, water, soil). Such controls may lead to shifting environmental harm from one medium to another, and thus fail to reduce (or may even increase) the overall degree of environmental harm. This has led to the development of coordinated prior authorization systems, whereby all pollution from one source and all recipient media are considered before one single, all-embracing authorization is granted.
Environmental: Safety: Occupational Health: Product Safety: Site history. Process/materials. Storage of materials. above ground. below …
A variety of factors, including the nature of the pollutant, the recipient media and the state of the art, determine which type of standard is most appropriate. Other considerations also play an important role: standard-setting provides a means to achieve a balance between what is environmentally desirable in a particular place at a particular point in time, and the socioeconomic feasibility of achieving a specific environmental goal.
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