encoding specificity hypothesis ..
Encoding; Encoding Specificity Hypothesis;
Encoding specificity hypothesis ..
Specifically, the results have implications with regard to a variety of issues re] the assessment of cognitive status in the older patient, including the importance of (a) employing sensitive measures in detecting and staging dementia diseases; (b) taking into account multiple demographic (e.g., age, gender, education), psychometric (e.g., performance IQ), and somatic (e.g., cardiovascular signs) individual-difference variables; and (c) considering carefully informants'' of the patient's cognitive functioning.
Photo provided by Flickr
At a Tactical Strategy or Alternative Paths level of SST functioning, the capacity to extract principles that can be applied to the complex manifestations of everyday life emerges. Theoretical guidelines often need to be adapted for application. Those with a Tactical orientation no longer rely on linear processing, but prefer viewing issues in terms of tangible systems and the interaction between observable system elements. They also tend to rely more on a logical process orientation rather than on specific rules and structured information, such as in the case of the Diagnostic level. However, they do not show readiness to cope with the highly interactive and dynamic approach that is required for Parallel Processing functioning.
According to the encoding specificity ..
Photo provided by Flickr
The criterion of specificity refers to the definition of the processing constructs and the specifications of interrelationships. This criterion is to some extent met by the present model in that the proposed problem solving processes are described in detail and references to constructs already discussed in the literature, are made throughout.
A number of theoretical models reflect either a very general level of focus, or a focus on a micro-level in processing. The three-stage theories of problem solving are examples of theorising on a very general level. Much of the information processing research using reaction time methodology, as well as some of the domain specific processing models, can be criticised for being too specific. Sternberg’s (1977b) Triarchic Theory of intelligence is an example of such a specific model. It has subsequently been criticised for being complicated and over-inclusive (Eysenck, 1984; Jackson, 1984) and for containing internal conflicts (Baron, 1984; Economos, 1984).
Encoding specificity principle The hypothesis that a retrieval ..
Photo provided by Flickr
A large number of dichotomous classifications distinguish between well-ordered processes on the one hand and a confusion of cognitive activity on the other (Neisser, 1967; Estes, 1986). These two dimensions are reflected by the , and the of the proposed problem solving model. On a general or rule level, specific procedures are organised and structured as rules whereas on a subconscious level activity is of a rather unstructured nature. Researchers who have implicitly or explicitly referred to processing on a general or rule level include Cronen and Mikevc (1972); Evans (1982); Geman (1981); Henle, 1962; Rumelhart and Ortony (1977); and Sternberg (1986). Those who have implied or mentioned processing on a subconscious level include Anderson (1985); Ellis, Meador and Bodfish (1985); Evans (1982); Gitomer and Pellegrino (1985); Guilford (1967); Sternberg (1981; 1983; 1986); and Vygotsky (1978).
These very general and specific models are not always ideal for practical application. Although there is no single scientifically meaningful level for the study of problem solving, a number of prominent theorists consequently motivated for the development of theoretical models reflecting an intermediate level of theorising. In other words, models that are general enough to cut across many domains, but are specific enough to be operationalised and evaluated in terms of convergent and discriminant validity.
Photo provided by Flickr
Table 1: The four levels/modes of processing
Doctoral Theses - Kungsholmen Project
Figures 3, 4, and 5 show how within the processing model, cognition depends upon context
Drug use among the very old living in ordinary households
A glossary giving definitions of common psychological terminology.
INDEX, Foundations of Orientation and Mobility
The CPP is the practical application designed to assess the specific processes and concepts shown in Figure 1. It measures intellectual functioning in terms of constructs such as judgement and decision making, strategising, generalist versus specialist orientation, creativity, complexity preferences and other thinking and problem solving factors related to professional, managerial and executive functioning. It is an advanced computerised assessment technique; using simulation exercises. Subjects are monitored in terms of their preferences and capabilities in exploring, analysing, structuring, transforming, remembering, and learning information and making decisions, or exercising their judgement. The results can serve both as a source of personal understanding and development, as well as being linked to job-related performance. Figure 6 summarises the key processing components and styles.
Bateman, M.D., Chengjie Xiong, Ph.D., Tammie L.S
(a) encoding, which involves the translation of a stimulus into an internal representation;
(b) inference, which means discovering a rule that relates one concept to another;
(c) mapping, or the discovery of a higher rule that relates one rule to another;
(d) application, whereby a rule is generated that extrapolates from an old concept to a new concept on the basis of an analogy to a previously learned rule;
(e) comparison, which involves the comparison of answer options to an extrapolated new concept to determine which option is closest to the extrapolated concept;
(f)justification, whereby a preferred answer option is compared to the extrapolated concept to determine whether the answer option is close enough to the extrapolated concept to justify its selection as the answer;
(g) the response, which involves the communication of the chosen answer through an overt act.
Cognitive Approach to Psychology Flashcards | Quizlet
Our findings in the SRET and emotional dot-probe task suggest a stable depression-specific pattern of information processing and support cognitive theories of depression (, ; ; ). These theories postulate that depression-related schemata are trait-dependent and are activated by corresponding mood, which increases vulnerability for depression. Consistent with these models, the present results provide an explanation for the high risk of recurrent depressive episodes that has consistently been demonstrated (; ). However, our findings of depression-specific information processing biases in formerly depressed persons cannot unambiguously be interpreted as causal factors for the development of depressive episodes. It is still possible that these biases are consequences of a preceding acute depressive episode as emphasized in the ‘scar hypothesis’ (). In other words, it is unclear whether vulnerability for depression is caused by biased information processing being already present before the onset of a first depressive episode or whether these biases are leftover scars from experiencing the previous depressive episode. Unfortunately, such causal relationships can only be tested in large-scale prospective studies and not with a remission design. However, recently demonstrated that a high-risk group of never-depressed daughters of depressed mothers exhibited depression-specific information processing in the emotion face dot-probe task. This observation suggests that depression-specific information processing can be present without the experience of an initial depressive episode. Studies on neural substrates of mood-congruent biases suggest that medial and orbital-prefrontal regions may play an important role in mediating the interaction between mood and cognition in affective disorders (). Furthermore, it was shown that allelic variations in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) are associated with the processing of positive and negative affective material (; ), which might constitute neurobiological target mechanisms for pharmacological interventions ().
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."