What does chemosynthetic mean? - YouTube
What does chemosynthesis mean
How does chemosynthesis generate energy? | Naked Science …
Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.
The was the first mass extinction of organisms that could be seen with the naked human eye. There was an soon before the eon of complex life began, and there may have been mass extinctions of microbes before then, but the evidence is so thin for anything before then that scientists may never know just how many mass extinctions there were. However, bacteria and archaea, those , and those communities do not have the apparent instability of complex life’s food chains, so there may have been few mass extinctions in Precambrian times. Cyanobacteria have not fundamentally changed in billions of years, which means that its mode of living has always worked well enough to ensure its survival. No animals have anything close to such a lengthy pedigree.
01/06/2016 · What Does Metabolism Mean in Science
Specialists are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice. Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist. However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and thought that the epidemic overspecialization and in his time and unable to see the forest for the trees. That has been slowly changing in my lifetime, so that collaborative efforts are drawing from multiple disciplines and achieving synthetic views that were not feasible in earlier times, and patterns are newly recognized that were invisible in a scientific world filled with isolated specialists. Many were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries. Scientific training today attempts to prevent that overspecialized tunnel vision, and today’s practicing scientists ideally get deep into the details and then pull back and try to see context, connections, and patterns. A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness. There are also to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both.
In the 1990s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by . A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime. Dating the , and using 100,000-year increments to place the dates, may seem a conceit, thinking that scientists can place that event with that precision, but over the years my doubts have diminished. When and can be tested, and the findings support not only Earth’s age previously determined by myriad methods, but also support the prevailing theories for the solar system’s and Moon’s formation, call me impressed. Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is still a , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling. As the story that this essay tells comes closer to today’s humanity, orthodox controversies become more heated and fringe claims proliferate.
What does chemosynthesis mean? | Experts123
As with previous Epochal Events, the advances in mental achievement were as dramatic as material changes. However, other than the , humans largely possessed the same cognitive equipment. If an infant girl from the that left Africa could have been placed in a home in an industrialized nation today, there is little reason to believe that she would not live a normal life. The changes in mental achievement during the journeys of have had little to do with biological changes and, in fact, in the past 30,000 years. Humanity’s material and mental changes were thoroughly interrelated. The human world became vastly more complex with the rise of industrialization, so much so that most people today have very little understanding of how their world actually works. It usually takes systems thinkers with scientific training to to understand the modern world’s complexities. For instance, about 95% of Americans are scientifically illiterate and have little idea where their energy comes from or how the myriad moving parts of their civilizations operate and interact. Americans are effective and are , and the rest of the industrialized world is close behind, but they have little idea where any of it comes from or how it was produced and delivered to them.
When historians debated the causes of Rome's decline and fall, for instance, they were merely debating proximate causes, which was understandable, as the science of energy did not yet exist when . Once scientists began to study the issue, running out of energy became seen as the ultimate cause, even though scientists still argue over environmental causes, for instance, but what some seem to miss in their arguments is that they are all just ways of saying that the civilization ran out of energy, whether humans contributed to the environmental failure (and declining and surplus energy) or not.
Chemosynthesis | Define Chemosynthesis at …
06/12/2011 · How does chemosynthesis generate energy
What does CHEMOSYNTHESIS mean
Chemosynthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary
Meaning of chemosynthesis
It often does so by combining simpler chemical entities or ..
24/10/2016 · What is CHEMOSYNTHESIS
Did the larger brain lead to the behaviors, or did the behaviors lead to the larger brain? If other evolutionary trends have relevance, they mutually reinforced each other and provided positive feedbacks; down one evolutionary line it reached conditions that led to the human brain. The initial behavior was probably the use of a body part (the brain) for a new purpose, and its success led to selective advantages that led to mutual reinforcement. Although it is by no means an unorthodox understanding, I think that the likely chain of events was walking upright freed hands for new behaviors, which led to new ways of making and using tools, which enhanced food acquisition activities. This allowed the energy-demanding brain to expand, as well as related biological changes, which led to more complex tools and behaviors that acquired and even more energy. That, in short, defines the human journey to this day, which the rest of this essay will explore. There has never been and probably never will again be an energy-devouring animal like humanity on Earth, unless it is a human-line descendant.
Chemosynthesis is at the heart of deep-sea communities, ..
Scientists today think that above all else, the first stone tools began humanity’s Age of Meat. Meat is a nutrient-dense food and is highly prized among wild chimpanzees that use it as a , and male chimps have used it as payment for sex. The human brain is more than three times the size of a chimpanzee’s, but recent research suggests that the human brain’s size is , and great ape brains seem relatively small because their bodies became relatively large, possibly due to sexual selection that resulted from vying for mates. Humans developed relatively larger brains and relatively smaller and weaker bodies, which was ; something had to give. Protohumans began relying on brains more than brawn. The studies of brain size, encephalization, neocortex function, intelligence, and their relationships are in their infancy. The current . Larger brains were needed for navigating increasing social complexity, and not only the number of individuals in a society, but the sophistication of interactions. It is also argued that smarter brains allowed for greater social complexity, in another possible instance of mutually reinforcing positive feedbacks. Societies can perform tasks that individuals cannot. Those engage in wars and revolutions. They can procure a food source and secure the territory, which creates the energetic means for developing a society. Tool-making may have been a bonus of that enlarged brain needed for social navigation, and walking bipedally coincidentally provided new opportunities for hands. , and all proposed dynamics may have had their influences. , about 10 times the energy needs of equivalent muscle mass, and primates cannot consciously turn their brains off any more than they can turn their livers off. Few studies have been performed on the relationships between energy, brains, and sleep, but a recent one found that sleep seems to be .
What Is Chemosynthesis? (with pictures) - wiseGEEK
Few people on Earth today have much understanding of the relationship between . Most people think that money runs the world, when it is only an accounting fiction. Money by itself is meaningless, and financial measures of economic activity can be highly misleading. I noted long ago that scientists had little respect for . that obscured the role of energy while exalting money. What a coincidence. Understanding this essay's first half will help with comprehending the last half, and the connections between energy, ecosystems, and economics should become clear.
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