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What function does the water serve during photosynthesis?

Autotroph - Wikipedia

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functioningorganisms1 - Autotrophs and Photosynthesis

Did the control of fire to , ? Or did merely use it to begin dominating the world? Was cooking the seminal event in the appearance of humans? Those questions may not be definitively answered in my lifetime, and led to the somewhat uncertain title of this chapter. Highly transformative developments coincided with the appearance and dispersal of , which was a radical break from all that came before – biologically, technically, and culturally – and strongly implies great cognitive enhancements. I believe that the control of fire and cooking would leave deep cultural and biological impacts on the human journey, and because barely changed during its nearly two-million year tenure on Earth, both in biology and in Acheulean artifacts, I favor Wrangham’s hypothesis, at least until the Next Big Finding. Just as Einstein said that and that his theories would one day become obsolete, but that their best parts would survive in the new theories, I suspect that significant aspects of Wrangham’s hypothesis will live on in successor hypotheses, and other scientists have been following Wrangham’s lead.

autotroph - National Geographic Society

Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.

An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food using ..

greenhouse gas produced by animals during respiration and used by plants during photosynthesis.

Rome had an underdeveloped economy. It largely relied on military conquest and plunder, not developing its domestic economy. Nevertheless, on an absolute scale, Rome was unprecedented; a lead spike in in the first century CE provides evidence of Rome’s level of industrial activity. The world’s lead mining did not reach Roman levels again until the 1700s. The arenas were only one venue of many where slaves died. The mines in Spain were also charnel houses that consumed lives at an astonishing pace. Many Carthaginians ended up in the mines, and Spain was deforested just like Greece, Italy, Anatolia, and the like. Modern observers, like those , would scarcely believe that those arid nations hosted lush forests not long ago. I and traveled the length of Italy, Greece, and the former Yugoslavia, and sailed through the Greek isles. I vividly recall the tremendous olive groves of Delphi and starker scenes, in which islands were nothing more than barren rock. The mountains could possess an austere beauty like a moonscape, and had I been told that all of those places hosted thick, moist forests a few millennia ago, I might not have believed it, either.

China’s was the second pristine civilization to rise, and although the and separated China from the Fertile Crescent and India, there was cultural and technological diffusion. At times, China was ahead of Fertile Crescent civilizations in technological and cultural innovation. By eight kya, agriculture was firmly established in China. China has had less investigation of its prehistory, but it seems clear that China’s deforestation began with agriculture, just like everyplace else, and by 1000 BCE, China was largely deforested. The East Asian food complex is markedly different from the Fertile Crescent's, largely because East Asia relied on summer monsoons for its water, and winter rains provided water for the Fertile Crescent and westward, although civilizations were primarily based on seed and root crops. The rice paddy is the most sophisticated preindustrial agricultural system ever created. It by 3000 BCE, and rice paddies bred malaria to the extent that the paddy system in southern China was not successful until the local populace had partially adapted to malaria. Deforested lands alternately , and managing water in China became the foundation of imperial practice like nowhere else in history. Although , in practice they did nothing at all. Chinese emperors and the states they controlled, however, owed their legitimacy in their subjects’ eyes to how well they controlled flooding and drainage. The Yellow and Yangtze rivers carried more than 30 times the silt that the Nile did, and deforestation with the resulting flooding, siltation, and desertification have been major Chinese problems for thousands of years. Although it has been challenged, the idea that China reached early political unity due to few geographic barriers has merit. China has been politically unified almost continually for more than two millennia. The Han Chinese that dominate China are like white Americans, Canadians, or Australians, in that they invaded, conquered, and came to dominate lands initially settled by others.

Chapter 6-Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Photosynthesis - California Polytechnic State University

Those energy concepts are real ones that all economies face, and financial measures only reflect them. In the USA, just , Peak Oil was . In 1973, the first oil crisis hit, and have declined since then. Wages were only a reflection of energy consumption, which also peaked in the 1970s for the USA and by that real wages per hour have. The USA’s declining standard of living since the 1970s was minor compared to the devastation inflicted on developing nations. The was initiated by the oil price shocks of the 1970s. Many nations have yet to recover. When the oil price shocks hit, and other measures were inflicted by Western institutions on developing nations. As people such as , those policies were intentionally used to enslave those nations. On the world stage, the self-image promoted by the West is that of blundering do-gooders. As people such as , it is a false narrative designed to hide corrupt motivation from the outset. It is simply more of that . I have written a great deal elsewhere on , how the resembles fairy tales, how professions and industries have , how the , just like genocidal invasions, were always economically motivated, usually to secure energy resources. This essay does not need to belabor those trends, but anybody not can clearly see that the game being played on the global stage is the same one that has been played: economically exploiting others. Because industrialized civilization is beginning to run out of the energy sources that the West used to industrialize, a universal decline in humanity’s standard of living has begun. The USA has transitioned from the land of opportunity to a deindustrializing economy in which bankers and other capitalists are designed to rob one class in favor of another. The aspect of those machinations is painfully obvious. The mind-control techniques that Orwell and Huxley wrote about have been turned into sciences, and there are even “competitions” between their dystopian visions to see .

During the , the Soviet Union promoted its political-economic system to newly free former colonies as a path to industrializing within a generation. was a real threat, and the is the . I doubt that John Kennedy’s murder will ever be solved, but , who in the operation that got John Kennedy killed, believed that Kennedy was killed because he began negotiating world peace. My friend’s account of Oswald’s involvement took on a with the declassification of the documents, and a recent book on the John Kennedy assassination, , also makes the case that John Kennedy was murdered because he was attempting to negotiate the Cold War's end after realizing how close the USA came to igniting a nuclear war.

Photosynthetic efficiency - Wikipedia
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Just as precipitation before plants colonized land, denuded lands and , and transpiration no longer contributed to the hydrological cycle. Rampant deforestation contributed to flooded Mesopotamian rivers, and the region also became drier. The flood that survived, which , was probably related to deforestation, although a great deal of speculation exists regarding the origins of flood myths. The , where the rising interglacial global ocean flooded the lake to levels higher than during the glacial period. Another hypothesis has rising seas flooding the lower end of Mesopotamia. There are arguments that the legend of Atlantis related to a seashore civilization drowned under a rising interglacial ocean, but I think that an increasingly deforested Sumerian hinterland gave rise to the floods of legend.

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The human ability to think abstractly was exploited by social managers from civilization’s earliest days. Fixating people on irrational symbols, and then manipulating those symbols for elite benefit, is arguably a universal trait of civilized peoples. Even today, a great deal of politics is the ; as with the earliest religion, the neocortex is bypassed in favor of , and people are easy prey to the cynical manipulation of emotionally charged symbols. The effects of can last for the victim’s lifetime. When people mistake symbols for reality, they are easily manipulated. Large-scale ideological indoctrination probably began in Sumer, as the priesthood concocted and promoted various beliefs. Symbology replaced reality, including the acceptance of the secular elite as deific, getting slaves to accept their status, and getting commoners to give food to the priesthood to fulfill some divinely ordained obligation. Religion passed from experience to belief with the rise of civilization. I am not suggesting that pre-civilized religions were necessarily enlightened. They had shamanic intermediaries too, but with the rise of civilization, the priest class had to work hard to justify the obviously unfair social organization that accompanied stratified populations. Direct religious experience was disparaged and suppressed while the priesthood’s religious indoctrination was promoted.

Glossary of Terms: C - Physical Geography

Later, palaces appeared, and Sumerian palaces and their related elites are seen today as more of an intrusive dynamic from rural societies, as a kind of invasion and conquest rather than a natural outcome of Sumerian urban life. The elite arguably performed some kind of exchange function, but a common idea among anthropologists is that elites became elites , not because they performed a necessary societal function. In early cities, elites usually arose from new professional classes that created and controlled markets. In early Mesopotamian states, palace activities were largely centered around elite lifestyles, not administering state functions. Sumer was the first pristine state, and when , something like happened. They all had similar features, which included: male domination, divinely sanctioned heads of state with harems and other extravagances in their capital cities, including elite-aggrandizing monumental architecture, forced servitude, human sacrifice and/or public executions to terrorize the populace into submission, conscripted “cannon fodder” infantry led by elite officers, fortified cities, taxation, and so on. All pristine states passed through similar developmental stages, and some features appeared earlier or later than others, with minor variation among their attributes, but they all had remarkable resemblances, which probably reflected human “nature,” in which everywhere reacted to analogous economic conditions in comparable fashion.

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